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Solved: Tarnished silver contains Ag2S. The tarnish can be

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 18.43 Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 18.43

Tarnished silver contains Ag2S. The tarnish can be removed by placing silverware in an aluminum pan containing an inert electrolyte solution, such as NaCl. Explain the electrochemical principle for this procedure. [The standard reduction potential for the half-cell reaction Ag2S(s) 1 2e 2 S 2Ag(s) 1 S22(aq) is 20.71 V.]

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Monday, March 28, 2016 AMH 2020 Week 12 Finishing the New Deal - FDR in the 1930s - The New Deal Coalition - Drifting toward War - Alphabet Soup Agencies: designed to get us out of the pressure - 1934: Roosevelt is not running because it’s mid-elections but there is a referendum on the New Deal, to keep it going or not. People vote for it. However, two groups of people don’t. • Business people, conservatives, Republicans - They say that it is an overarching attempt by the government and they think the economy will overturn no matter what - Fight it through the Supreme Court - AAA as a result, is declared unconstitutional with the NRA (two center-pieces of the New Deal) • People on the left, however, say that the New Deal doesn't go far enough - People like the governor and senator of Louisiana, Huey Long, want to redistribute the rich’s wealth by a program called everyone with a King • Huey Long is as good if not better than FDR at the radio. - Charles Coughlin is a Roman Catholic who believes that the rich need to be helping average people more. He becomes known as the Radio Priest. He gives a speech in Madison Square Garden where 19,000 people show up. - Francis Townsend is a doctor from California is not a dynamic speaker but he has a great message. There is one group of Americans that continue to be hurt by the Great Depression and that group of people are the elderly. • The New Deal is designed to get people jobs, but grandpa wants to retire. 1 Monday, March 28, 2016 • He calls this plan, DTOARPP. The government should give pensions to old people, creating a spark in grandma and grandpa. FDR understands that he has to tweak the New Deal. - FDR is going to say that conservatives are standing the way of progress and try to help more people on the left. • Long is problematic for FDR because he is blistering attacking the New Deal from the left, but in 1935, Huey Long gets assassinated in the Louisiana State capital itself. • FDR still has to deal with Long’s support and initiates the Second New Deal - The Second New Deal begins • Designed to reshape America and is much more broadly based • The WPA: designed to give jobs specifically for people’s talents • Wealth tax: designed basically to take money out of the hands of the wealthy and give it back to poor people, redistributing income inequality (Huey Long’s desire) • SEC: Securities in Exchange Commission - Regulates the practices of big business Social Security in response to DTOARPP • - It is not a handout. You get money if you have worked. This is not welfare for old people, it is payment for all of the years that they have worked. • Labor->Wagner Act: says that workers have the right to join a union. A management cannot stop them. By establishing the NLRB: National Labor Relations Board, we encourage businesses to solve their problems through the government. • NRA—the NLRB, businesses had the voluntary decision to do this. Now, the voluntary decision is mandatory, - The Second New Deal reveals more Republican opposition, but now, FDR has to run for reelection in 1936 • If you like the New Deal, vote for me, and if you don’t, vote for Alph Landa • Roosevelt wins in a landslide, verifying the fact that people like the New Deal 2 Monday, March 28, 2016 • He is an astute politician, but, upon winning the 1936 election, he thinks he’s a big shot. He goes after the one group of characters that hate FDR, Supreme Court. He calls them the 9 old men, and they are profoundly conservative. They are so conservative and racist that one of them chooses not to sit next to Brandeis. • FDR believes they threaten the Second New Deal because laws can be declared unconstitutional by the court. He is scared that the Supreme Court will declare much of the Second New Deal unconstitutional. - Right after he is inaugurated, FDR proposed the Judiciary Reorganization Act in January 1937. • For every Justice over the age of 70, there should be appointed another justice. • He’s doing this because he wants new justices on there to support his ideas. He says he’s doing this to help them, but he’s actually “court packing” with new justices that are going to support him. • Even Democrats say, WTFAYD. It appears the FDR is changing the court to fix his political ideas. The Judiciary Reorganization Act fails and his political capital drops. • These 9 old men are still old, and by 1940, 3 of the most conservative justices dies and are replaced by Democratic supporters of Roosevelt. - Roosevelt says that now it is time to cut spending. Things are great, but not nearly as good as where we started. He cuts social programs and cuts the number of people in the CCC and WPA. By 1939, we have the Roosevelt Recession because unemployment increases • • He reintroduces the CCC and WPA, but the economy ends up all the way at the top, is spending for the war • This proves that government was spending money for WWII rather than civilian jobs - New Deal and Groups • The New Deal helps African Americans, giving them jobs and help. The New Deal didn’t help them as much as it could, however, due to the political associations of the Democratic Party. • Democratic Party 1936 develops the New Deal Coalition, reshaping the country during from there until the Cold War 3 Monday, March 28, 2016 • In the New Deal Coalition, there are people such as immigrants, workers, women, blacks in the north • Blacks are leaving the Republican party because they aren’t doing anything for them • Black sharecroppers in the South have pictures of 3 white people: Jesus, Lincoln, and FDR • Black opera singer, Marian Anderson, gives concert at DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) constitution hall in DC. Until, DAR figures out that she is a black woman. Eleanor Roosevelt says that this is ridiculous and publicly resigns from the DAR, calls them racist, and allows for Marian Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial. She sings God Bless America. - As a black sharecropper in the South, it makes you feel pretty good. It’s more symbolic than anything else because there is another member of the New Deal Coalition. - White southerners still hate Lincoln and they are conservative, but they have votes that Roosevelt needs and can/t afford to antagonize them too much because they would leave the party. Roosevelt has to tread lightly for African Americans. - The biggest problem during this time for African Americans during this time is lynching, public execution. The corner always says the people who did the killing are parties unknown • although they all know white members of the community did it • Anti-lynching legislation begins, but it is never passed by the federal government because Roosevelt understands that white southerners would not stay with the party, proving that the New Deal Coalition has limits - Eleanor is an advocate for women’s rights and giving women positions of power • First women cabinet secretary, Secretary of Labor, appointed by FDR, is Francis Perkins • She becomes an advocate for women’s rights for labor rights • The New Deal for women is much more symbolic for women than actually helping them • Much of the jobs that women do, do not fall under Social Security 4 Monday, March 28, 2016 Labor and the New Deal - FDR - Wagner Act: puts government at some level on the side of labor • Increasing the number joining unions by the 1930s because they feel that unions can help them and the government will allow the unions to do so AFL: American Federation of Labor by Gompers originally • - Rather conservative • A new union arises, CIO, Congress of Industrial Organizations - Inclusive of skilled, non-skilled, and is by industry rather than craft - Everybody in an industry works together - Rather radical - Some members of the CIO are actually socialists and actually communists - In the 1930s, the Communist Party of the US is an important player in fighting for the rights of workers, Hispanics, and African Americans - The CIO tries to organize heavy industry: steel, auto, rubber in the industrial Midwest - The union has to show that they are getting better results: through the NLRB or through striking • Unskilled auto, rubber, and steel workers can easily be replaced when going on strike. BUT NOW: • Sit-down strikes: closed down the assembly line and stayed there. It gives unskilled workers something that they didn’t have before: leverage. • Flint, 1936: General Motors asks the Michigan governor to intervene. However, he believes that the businesses need to negotiate with their workers. They all make acceptable compromises with unions as a result. This is profoundly important because it allows workers to be treated fairly and creates a viable middle class. - Union workers solidly support the Democratic party 5 Monday, March 28, 2016 - Henry Ford: doesn’t believe that people need unions because Ford has paid the workers decently - Ford crushes attempts to make unions in his plants - The largest steel corporation, US Steel, settles with the CIO, but other smaller corporations do not since they can’t afford to pay workers well - In Chicago 1936, 7 workers are shot by management thugs of Little Steel - Ford has the largest corporate army and will tear gas their workers - CIO unions support Roosevelt, and Roosevelt responds • The guy who is the governor of Michigan is appointed to the Supreme Court by Roosevelt, declaring much of Roosevelt’s legislation constitutional Drifting towards War - Fascism rises in Europe - People don't initially see this as a threat because it is far away. • Most importantly, Hitler and Mussolini are being tolerated since they are improving the economies in their respective countries Mussolini makes the trains run on time • • Pretty early, we get hits of Hitlers rise to power and its association with Anti- Semitism • There are quotas at Harvard for Jews here in America and Hitler’s anti-semitism was necessarily a problem for Americans since it was far away - Militarism is rising in Japan • Japan is a resource-poor country • By 1931, Japan invades northern China, Manchuria for resources, blatantly attacking another country • Japan quits the League of Nations after being condemned, revealing the weakness of the organization • 6 years later in 1937, Japan invades China itself - Fight between nationalist Chinese, communist Chinese, and the Japanese 6 Monday, March 28, 2016 - The US tells Japan to stop but Japan says no - The vast majority of Americans want to concern ourselves with us first, Isolationism • They don’t want to be engaged with the rest of the world - We don’t want to repeat the problem that happened with the Great War • So, America passes the Neutrality Acts, ensuring that the US does not engage in foreign conflict again • In 1937, Italy invades Ethiopia, the last non-colonial nation in Africa with blatant aggression - The US opinion at some level says that we need to help the Ethiopians - Nye Committee Hearing • The reason initially we went to war was for businessmen to make profit off of dead American soldiers • According to NYE we shouldn’t get involved with another War, and it is really about the future • Slowly, the Japanese war against China gets more and more brutal - Rape of Nanking • The US sits by • The same year, the fascists of Germany and Italy get involved in the Spanish Civil War - The US doesn’t get involved - Pablo Picasso: Guernica - The person who recognizes that isolationism is not going to work is FDR • He acknowledges the threat that fascism in Europe and militarism in Asia proposes to us • In 1939, a ship leaves Hamburg full of US refugees and FDR refuses their entry into the US • In 1939, WWII starts as Hitler invades Poland, 9/1/1939 7 Monday, March 28, 2016 - Hitler hates communism more than Americans do, so this allows US to be okay with it - One month before this invasion, in August, Hitler in Germany, signs a peace treaty with USSR and the world is shocked because the leader at that time was Stalin - Hitler does this because he is buying time, but Stalin does it because his army is very weak • France and England join Poland - WWII is basically 2 wars taking place at the same time, the Pacific and Europe 8

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Chapter 18, Problem 18.43 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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Solved: Tarnished silver contains Ag2S. The tarnish can be