Considering only the cost of electricity, would it be cheaper to produce a ton of sodium or a ton of aluminum by electrolysis?
Chapter Twelve Gender and Sexuality 04/06/16 1. Gender a. Social and physiological aspects of being female and male b. How you identify yourself (male or female) c. What does it mean to be female/male d. Gender roles – expectations society has about the way you should think and feel according to your sex 2. Gender Roles vs. Gender Identity a. By 2 years of age, kids have a basic sense of what it is to be female and male. This is found to be universal. i. By 2 years, girls prefer to interact with other girls ii. Around 3 years of age, boys prefer to interact with other boys b. Close to age 3, children prefer to play with gender specific toys c. Around ages 4-5, kids know their sex is permanent d. Preschool-age children are judgmental of what toys boys and girls should play with and will hold on to these beliefs until age 7 e. By age 10, kids already recognize that females are less valued than males 3. Biological Perspectives on Gender a. Researchers tend to study individuals exposed to high levels of sex hormones, including… i. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia – inherited disorder in which adrenal glands in females limit hormone production. High levels of androgen is produced in females, which leads to having female sex organs and an external male skeleton. 1. Have either an enlarged clitoris or penis 2. Often grow up to identify as lesbian or bisexual 3. 1 out of 14,000 live births result in this disorder ii. Androgen Insensitive Males – inherited disorder in which the body of a genetic male does not produce androgen, so the body appears female 1. Result in enlarged clitoris 2. Don’t have female reproductive system 3. Will often develop female gender identity and are attracted to males iii. Pelvic Field Defect – inherited disorder in which boys are missing their penis, but do have testes and internal sex organs 1. During puberty, will experience belated masculinization of external sex organs and second sex characteristics 2. Will often be raised females b. Does not necessarily explain gender 4. Psychoanalytic Perspectives a. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, gender typing is due to biological sex differences. Children become aware of these differences and take on gender roles. b. Phallic stage (preschool years) – pleasure relates to genitals i. Discovery of anatomical differences ii. Identification process c. Around age 5, boys believe all women are castrated, including their mother, and believe their father will castrate them too (castration anxiety) unless they give up their sexual interests for their mom. Same goes for girls and their fathers, except girls develop penis envy. 5. Social Learning Approaches a. Argues that gender roles develop from observing our role models (mom and dad) and taking on their roles 6. Social Cognitive Approaches a. Kids begin to internalize standards according to what’s appropriate for their gender 7. Cognitive Approaches a. We’re active learners, so we search for patterns that govern our birth sex. Tend to rely on superficial characteristics (hair, clothing) i. Gender schema – kids form expectations and apply as “rules” about what is appropriate for males and females 1. Research shows that kids who have strong gender schemas tend to have a narrower view of what is and is not acceptable for each gender ii. Cognitive Developmental Theory – start taking up gender roles after we realize our sex is permanent 8. Research Shows… a. Some studies suggests that androgynous people have the greatest psychological adjustment to femininity and masculinity, because they share both female and male characteristics b. Having high masculinity leads to a high psychological well being c. Males, including Asian-American and African American, hold on to more traditional gender role beliefs compared to women d. African American females hold the least traditional gender role beliefs among the female groups 9. Sexual Orientation a. Europe had been performing research in this area since the late 1800s b. Alfred Kinsey is best associated with sexuality research, which he published in America in the 1940s. Unfortunately, his research was not well received. i. Believed sexual orientation is fluid and falls on a continuum ii. 0 (exclusively heterosexual) 6 (exclusively non-heterosexual) c. Research shows that about 3% of males and 1.3% of females admit to having a same sex relationship in the past year