You are balancing a wrench by suspending it at a single point. Is the equilibrium stable, unstable, or neutral if the point is above, at, or below the wrench’s center of gravity? In each case give the reasoning behind your answer. (For rotation, a rigid body is in ?stable equilibrium if a small rotation of the body produces a torque that tends to return the body to equilibrium; it is in ?unstable equilibrium if a small rotation produces a torque that tends to take the body farther from equilibrium; and it is in ?neutral? equilibrium if a small rotation produces no torque.)
Study Guide: Exam 2 Phrases Consist of one or more words, have hierarchical structure, and have labels The head (the most important word in the phrase) projects it’s category to the overall phrase Noun Phrase ╱╲ Adj Noun deep holes If the head is a verb it becomes a verb phrase, etc Noun The superscript 1 indicates that it is a phrase, in this case a noun phrase Constraints: A head can be surrounded by one or two types of dependents: o Specifiers before the head X o Complements after the head ╱ | ╱ X This applies to the building of all phrases: | ╲ 0 Specifier X Compliment Specifier → Head ← Complement Compliments are occasionally obligatory, such as if “fond” is the head. Phrases can be recursive, because you can string together multiple phrases into one long phrase. Ex: (The hat (on the hook (in the house))) Phrase structure needs to be repaired, too: o Inflection words need to be adapted to fit the environment they are in. Adjusts a word so that it fits the context it is in. (deals with affixes) Attached different morphemes to better fit the context (Ex: adding an ‘s’ to the end of a word). o Transformation Sometimes, phrases have to be moved. Universals Linguistic Universals are properties that are shared by all languages. Ex: All languages have nouns and verbs. Because a universal is true of all languages, it must be genetic o This is true of anything. If there is something that is universal, for instance the desire to eat food, then it must be genetic. o But, not all universal properties are innate Poverty of Stimulus Argument: How could children who have such a poor input produce such a rich output They know more about language than they could have been exposed to. Chomsky’s Solution: We must have innate, universal rules that we select between (Principles) as children while learning our language. (What we choose are our Parameters). This ties in to the principles and parameters approach Principles and Parameters Approach Proposed by Chomsky to respond to Plato’s problem (How could children with such a poor input produce such a rich output). Chomsky says that we may have little or no exposure, but with these universal rules we know a lot in advance, and therefore don’t need to make too many choices. Principles True of every language, like a list of options to choose from when creating a language. Ex: must contain nouns and verbs. Must choose from a certain set of vowels Parameters What children have decide is the correct way for their language. These are the “Switches” we flip from one side to the other. Ex: My languages arranges words in a sentence Subject Object Verb, instead of Subject Verb Object. Stages of Language Development People argue that the development of language can be observed as occurring in stages, and children begin learning a language very soon after birth, well before they are able to utter their first words. We can find out what babies know by observing their behavior. For example, we can measure the rate if their sucking on a pacifier when prompted with different stimuli. o They become accustomed to listening to a repeating phoneme “B, b, b, b…” and their rate of sucking decreases as they become bored. But when a similar sounding phoneme of their language is inserted “b, b, p, b, ….” Their rate of sucking increases as they notice the change. Stages progress along a roughly similar timeline for all children Stage 1 (08 weeks) vegetative and reflexive sounds Stage 2 (820 weeks) laughing or cooing Stage 3 (1630 weeks) experimenting with vocalizations Stage 4 (2550 weeks) Reduplicative babbling Stage 5 protowords and nonreduplicative babbling Stage 6 Single words Stage 7 2 word phrases Could be pre syntax or the beginning of syntax. Could be an ability that evolved independently which we share with other species. Telegraphic Stage “Sentences” are like a telegram, they have no endings. Grammar and syntax are developing o Ex: Daddy come home This can also be seen in birds, who learn their songs in pieces. Language takes time to develop, the stages are genetic “built in” Critical Period Hypothesis The critical period last from birth to the beginning of puberty, around age 13. Exposure to a language must occur during that time, or a person will not be able to develop any kind of language. If you are not exposed to a language before puberty, you will not be able to learn a language. Genie (And other Feral Children) Was found at age 13. She was deprived of all language input and was severely neglected by her parents. Her language ability was the same as a toddler's, barely able to babble. After years, she was able to say words and eventually groups of two or three words. This is similar to the 2 word presyntax stage of very young children, however she didn’t seem to know the rules of syntax. The reason why Genie was unable to acquire language is because if is the innate Language Acquisition Device isn’t activated through hearing a language within the Critical Period, then it will disappear. How was Genie Able to Learn as Much as She did Before the Universal Grammar humans used a simpler, innate grammar device called ProtoLanguage protoLanguage is older than language as we know it. We still have this ability, however around age 2 we activate syntax and our “Advanced” way of language. Genie had to rely on protolanguage because that was built in, and she wasn’t exposed to language so it couldn’t switch over to the LAD. Proto Language doesn’t have syntax, and only have words for concrete concepts. Has a simple phonology. Second Language Acquisition If you learn a language before puberty (as most people do), then you will be able to learn second, third, or fourth languages (etc). Learning a language before the age of 7 makes someone fully fluent in that language Learning a language before the age of 15 (or puberty) makes someone almost completely fluent. Learning a language after the age of 15 will be difficult and take hard work. They will always speak with an accent. o This is because the Language Acquisition Device for that language was never “installed” during the critical period and has shut down. Length of exposure to a language does not improve someone’s fluidity. It is when they learned the language that matters. How do these topics work together They all try to explain different ways/ reasons for how we learn a language Universals we already know some things, so there isn’t too much more to learn/ we can learn it more quickly Poverty of Stimulus We have Principles and Parameters which help us learn a language much more quickly, again there isn’t that much to learn. Stages of Language Acquisition We learn our language (and grammar) in stages, it takes time and doesn’t all happen at once. Critical Period If we don’t have exposure to language during this critical period then we won’t be able to learn a language at all. Genie and other Feral Children prove this.