An ATM personal identification number (PIN) consists of four digits, each a 0, 1, 2, . . . 8, or 9, in succession. a. ?How many different possible PINs are there if there are no restrictions on the choice of digits? b. ?According to a representative at the author’s local branch of Chase Bank, there are in fact restrictions on the choice of digits. The following choices are prohibited: (i) all four digits identical (ii) sequences of consecutive ascending or descending digits, such as 6543 (iii) any sequence starting with 19 (birth years are too easy to guess). So if one of the PINs in (a) is randomly selected, what is the probability that it will be a legitimate PIN (that is, not be one of the prohibited sequences)? c. ?Someone has stolen an ATM card and knows that the first and last digits of the PIN are 8 and 1, respectively. He has three tries before the card is retained by the ATM (but does not realize that). So he randomly selects the 2nd and 3rd digits for the first try, then randomly selects a different pair of digits for the second try, and yet another randomly selected pair of digits for the third try (the individual knows about the restrictions described in (b) so selects only from the legitimate possibilities). What is the probability that the individual gains access to the account? d. ?Recalculate the probability in (c) if the first and last digits are 1 and 1, respectively.

Answer Step 1 of 4 4 a) Number of different possible PINs =10 =10000 Step 2 of 4 b)The number of pins in either ascending or descending order is 2(7)=14 because there are two choices (ascending or descending)and out of 10 numbers 3 numbers can easily identify The number of pins in either ascending or descending order is 10(1)(1)(1)=10 because once the first digit is known, then the three other values can easily identify. The number of pins where each slot contains the same digit is 10(1)(1)(1)=10 because once the first digit is known there is only one option left to the rest of the slots. The number of pins that have their first and second slot occupied by 1 and 9, respectively is 1(1)(10)(10)=100 So the number of restricted pins=14+10+10+100=124 The number of legitimate PINs=10000-124=9876 The probability of legitimate PINs=9876/10000 =0.9876