# 43. Farmers market. A farmer has 100 lb of apples and50 lb

## Problem 43 Chapter 16

Stats: Modeling The World | 3rd Edition

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Problem 43

43. Farmers market. A farmer has 100 lb of apples and50 lb of potatoes for sale. The market price for apples (perpound) each day is a random variable with a mean of 0.5dollars and a standard deviation of 0.2 dollars. Similarly,for a pound of potatoes, the mean price is 0.3 dollars andthe standard deviation is 0.1 dollars. It also costs him 2dollars to bring all the apples and potatoes to the market.The market is busy with eager shoppers, so we can assumethat hell be able to sell all of each type of produceat that days price.a) Define your random variables, and use them to expressthe farmers net income.b) Find the mean.c) Find the standard deviation of the net income.d) Do you need to make any assumptions in calculatingthe mean? How about the standard deviation?

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Behavioral Neuroscience Study Guide – Exam 3 *Study Tip: When studying for this class exams you should overview ALL of your notes in a good amount. It is good to focus on the more complicated concepts but do not neglect the simpler concepts because there will most likely be questions on it as well. This guide focuses on explaining on the more complicated concepts but you should not study this guide alone. Overview of Neuroscience Methods: Animal Methods - Patch Clamping: Micropipette is used to seal off a piece of the neuronal membrane - Immunocytochemistry: “programming” antibodies to detect specific proteins - Microdialysis: Extracts ECF fluid from inside the brain to the outside through a pump - Tracing: Labels neurons (via dye, autoradiography, virus etc…)so you can follow their pathways - Optogenetic: Alters neurons to be light sensitive so it can be triggered with different Knockout wavlengths - Ablation: Destroying of tissue - Single-cell recordings: Placing an electrode into a brain area and passively record what occurs - Electrical Stimulation: Place an electrode in the brain area and use it to stimulate - Knockouts: Removing a gene from an animal and noting differences Human methods - Patients: Compare populations with brain damage V. those without brain damage - Electrocorticography (ECoG): Implanted across the frontal cortex, can locate activity (i.e. seizure sources) - Electrical brain Stimulation (EBS): Stimulating the brain with the ECoG - Computerized Tomography (CT): Combines 2-D x-rays to create 3-D image of the brain structure - Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Functional 3D images measured by brains consumption of radioactive glucose - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Magnetic fields and radio frequency’s used for structural and functional 3D brain imaging - Functional MRI (fmri): When the MRI is set to measure function, not structure. Measures blood oxygenation - Electroencephalography (EEG): Places electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity - Magnetoencephalography: Measures magnetic fields generated by the brain - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Disrupts cortical activity with a magnetic pulse, causing a brief error - Behavioral Genetics: Attempts to correlate behavior with similarity/variability in the genome Overview Vision: Stimulus - Light (Wavelength, Amplitude) = Electromagnetic energy) o Saturation = purity of color The Sensory Apparatus - The Eye - The Retina Neural Pathways - Retinohypothalamic : Retina to hypothalamus - Retinopretectal: Retina to pretectum - Retinocollicular: Retina to superior colliculus - Retinogeniculostriiate: retina to LGN o Handles all detailed and conscious vision o RetinaLGNV1 Cortical Representations - Area V1 o Ventral Stream (When) o Dorsal stream (Where) Stimulus Humans can detect light between a wavelength of 380nm – 760 nm - Amplitude = Affects brightness - Wavelength = Affects color  Perception is further affected by: o Hue o Saturation o Brightness Sensory Apparatus  Light enters the eye and hits the retina (in the back) then proceeds to go through its 3 layers:  The retina layers have Laminar organization and function BACKWARDS from their anatomical order o Light passes through the ganglion layer  bipolar layer photoreceptor layer because they are transparent. o Once the light hits the photoreceptor layer it triggers the information processing and works its way BACKWARDS through the layers. The ganglion cells connect to the optic nerve which then send the information to the brain Retina layers (in functional order) 1. Photoreceptor layer: Transduces light into neural signals (forms synapse with bipolar cells) a. Rods : Night Vision b. Cones: Detailed/color vision i. S-Cones ii. M-Cones iii. L- cones 2. Bipolar cells: Transfer information from the photoreceptors to ganglion cells 3. Ganglion Cells: Project to the brain through the optic nerve RODS V. CONES CONES RODS Most concentrated in the Fovea (central retina) Most Concentrated in the Peripheral retina (not present in the fovea) Sensitive to moderate – high levels of light Sensitive to Low levels of light Provide Information about hue Provide only monochromatic information Provides excellent acuity Provides poor acuity Visual Pathways =Contralateral Organization Eye: Has both Visual Hemifields (Right and left) Optic Tract: Keeps track of the visual hemifield on its side Optic chiasm: Contains both sides of space (loss = blindness) Receptive fields of Ganglion Cells On Center Cells: Pick up light stimulus on a dark background Off Center cells: Pick up dark stimulus on a light background Cortical Representations 1. Area V1: Retinotropic organization ( and don’t forget contralateral) pictured in the image below V1 Receptive fields o Binocularity: Refers to a neuron having a receptive field in each eye o Orientation selectivity :...

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