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Give the IUPAC names of the following alkanes.

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780321768414 | Authors: L.G. Wade Jr ISBN: 9780321768414 33

Solution for problem 37SP Chapter 3

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780321768414 | Authors: L.G. Wade Jr

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 37SP

Give the IUPAC names of the following alkanes.

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 37SP

Step 1 </p>

The IUPAC rules are as follows:

1. Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain.

2. Identify and name groups attached to this chain.

3. Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest a substituent group.

4. Designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name.

5. Assemble the name, listing groups in alphabetical order using the full name (e.g, cyclopropyl before isobutyl).

6. The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, are not considered when alphabetizing.

Step 2 </p>

Chirality center: An atom (usually carbon) which is bonded to four different atoms or groups is known as chiral center.

R and S configuration can be assign to the compound by using the following CIP (Cahn-Ingold-Prelog) sequence rules:

Rule 1: Select the chiral center in the compound and assign priorities to the atoms based on its atomic number. The atom which is having highest atomic number gets the first priority and atom which is having least atomic number (usually hydrogen) fourth priority.

Rule 2: If the isotopes of same atom are attached to the chiral center, then then atom with the higher atomic mass receives higher priority.

Rule 3: If the first atom of each substituent is same then give priority to the second atom in the each substituent. This process in continue to the third and fourth until the rule difference is reached.

Rule 4: If the substituents have multiple bonds, the multiple bonded atoms are considered as same number of single boned atoms.

Step 3 </p>

If the rotation of the numbering is in clockwise direction, then the configuration of the isomer is R. Similarly, if the rotation of the numbering is in anticlockwise direction, then the configuration of the isomer is S.

Step 4 </p>

(a)

There are seven carbon atoms in the long chain. So, the name of the parent chain is heptane. Number the chain and see that the substituents get the lowest possible number. Thus, the two methyl groups are 2nd carbon atom, and other methyl group is at 6th carbon. Therefore, the IUPAC name of the compound is as follows:

Step 5 </p>

(b)

There are eight carbon atoms in the long chain. So, the name of the parent chain is octane. Number the chain and see that the substituents get the lowest possible number. Thus, the methyl groups are at 2nd, 6th and 7th carbon atoms, and ethyl group is at 3rd carbon. Therefore, the IUPAC name of the compound is as follows:

Step 6 </p>

(c)

There are ten carbon atoms in the long chain. So, the name of the parent chain is decane. Number the chain and see that the substituents get the lowest possible number. Thus, the two methyl groups are at 2nd and other methyl group is at 8th carbon atom; ethyl groups are at 3rdand 7th carbon atoms. Therefore, the IUPAC name of the compound is as follows:

Step 7 of 11

Chapter 3, Problem 37SP is Solved
Step 8 of 11

Textbook: Organic Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: L.G. Wade Jr
ISBN: 9780321768414

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