Write a balanced chemical equation for the fermentation of sugar (C12H22O11) by yeasts in which the aqueous sugar reacts with water to form aqueous ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and carbon dioxide gas.
Sucrose is a dimer of glucose and fructose molecules. In the first step of alcoholic fermentation, the enzyme invertase cleaves the glycosidic linkage between the glucose and fructose molecules.
C12H22O11 + H2O + invertase → 2 C6H12O6
Next, each glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvate molecules in a process known as glycolysis. Glycolysis is summarized by the equation:
C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ → 2 CH3COCOO− + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 H+
The chemical formula of pyruvate is CH3COCOO−. Pi stands for the...