Write full orbital diagrams and indicate the number of unpaired electrons for each element.
Solution 51P :
Orbital diagrams are pictorial descriptions of the electrons in an atom.
Rules for Writing Electron Configurations :
1) Aufbau’s Principle - Electrons enter orbitals of the lowest energy first. An energy level (or sublevel more precisely) will fill with electrons before electrons start to fill the next energy level or energy state. All lower energy levels are full up to the last energy level; levels are not skipped or eliminated because of energy level.
2) The Pauli Exclusion Principle - An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, at least one for that orbital to exist. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must have opposite spins. If two electrons occupy the same orbital they are said to be paired. Orbitals with one electron are unpaired.
3) Hund's Rule - When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron, with spins parallel, before they are paired. Second electrons then add to each orbital so that their spins are paired.