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Visualizing ConceptsThe following diagram represents an

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 15E Chapter 14

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 15E

Visualizing Concepts

The following diagram represents an imaginary two-step mechanism. Let the red spheres represent element A, the green ones element B, and the blue ones element C. (a) Write the equation for the net reaction that is occurring. (b) Identify the intermediate. (c) Identify the catalyst. [Sections]

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Topics for the Third Exam Theories of Personality -Freud -Adler -Perls -Existential Theories -Erickson -Family Therapy Sigmund Freud -Born in Czechoslovakia, moved to Austria as a child -Family encouraged education, was a very good student -Went to med school to be a Dr., then for Psychiatry to develop theories Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory *very complicated theory, people often misinterpret it due to lack of knowledge* -The project -the book Freud began to write which contained the theory of personality being based upon the nervous system -The book was never finished because he changed his beliefs on the subject, however it did help to improve later theories that he developed -contained the ideas of primary and secondary processes: Primary Processes: the tendency of the nervous system to be active Secondary Processes: when all the activity suddenly stops ex)when you are startled by something -these processes were central in Freud’s theory -the two opposite tendencies caused conflict within -Early studies on hysteria -Charcot was the famous psychologist at the time of Freud finishing school and Freud went to study with Charcot in Paris for a year -During this time Charcot and Bernheim were arguing about the nature of hypnosis -After he finished studying with Charcot he came back and opened his own private practice, he was considered to be an expert in hysteria and ended up working with a lot of people who had hysterical symptoms -Breuer and Anna O. -Freud developed a friendship with Breuer and collaborated with him on developing hysteria theories -Anna was a young woman who was experiencing a number of problems -Ill father, only one who took care of him so she wasn’t in school, had no friends, etc. She developed temporary neck paralysis, various phobias and the inability to speak in her native german -Breuer started treating her by hypnosis and she remembered that when she was younger she got very upset that she saw her dog drinking out of a regular glass (started yelling and crying) (had a phobia of drinking water at the time) -Breuer kept getting her to remember instances like such and she started to get better -Anna eventually fell in love with Breuer, and he rejected her which caused her to fall apart and have a hallucination of being in mid-labor with Breuer’s child. Breuer refused to treat her from then on. -Breuer went and talked to Freud about it and he believed that all the negative feelings she was building up from her life were causing her physical tension -Abreaction and catharsis (1st model of treatment) Abreaction​he expression & consequent release of a previously repressed emotion, achieved through reliving the experience that caused it (typically through hypnosis or suggestion). Catharsis: the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions -Seduction theory Freudbelieved provided the solution to the problem of the origins of hysteriand ​bsessionaneurosi​According to the theory,epressed memory​of an​arly childhoosexual abusor molestatioexperience was the essential precondition for hysterical symptoms. These people became scared of their own feelings and suppressed them in their memory. -Revision of the seduction theory -hysteria was very common at this time, especially among the “respectable” families -this caused lots of suspicion into those families, and caused criticism of his theory -revised the theory, and claimed that these memories were not of real events, but rather vague images of thoughts and fantasies that the person had as child that they weren’t aware of Theory of Consciousness Freud argued that deep down all humans are animals, sometimes even more aggressive than tigers. From this he developed the three levels of consciousness. The Conscious: anything that we are aware of at any given moment The Preconscious: things you aren’t aware of, but can become aware of ex)what you had for dinner yesterday The Unconscious: things we aren’t aware of and cannot become aware of In the Ego -the conscious and the preconscious -this part understands society and keeps the ID under control through repression of the thoughts that aren’t acceptable in society In the ID -needs, desires, and ideas that aren’t acceptable in society that are part of our animal nature -the unconscious Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory -Theory of Consciousness (continued) -Libido and repression of primitive desires Libido: energy that functions ID -Methods of studying the unconscious (can’t study directly) -process of repression relaxes during dreaming (why they are strange) -dreams: highly symbolic, thoughts that are usually kept in unconscious Manifest content: actual content Latent content: what the actual content symbolizes -therapists discuss their feelings and try to relate them to real life -free association: -ask them to report every single thought without holding back -helpful b/c people report seemingly unconnected things that are actually connected -Insight (2nd model of treatment) - Freud changed his theory to start trying to help people understand their feelings -thought that a healthy person has control over their unconscious and the way they express and relieve it, but you have to know yourself and have insight -Studies with normal people: all have primitive desires -at some point all reported similar memories to those who were considered and diagnosed to be hysterical -Need to explain individual differences -normal people have a better way of handling hysteria because they don’t bottle it up and repress it Stage Theory The Oral Stage -food most important -derives all satisfaction through eating and drinking -has no concept of self -develops this concept by learning that the mental image of food can’t satisfy them -fantasy vs. reality=environment vs. self -learns they aren’t helpless (can control the environment) Problems: -if you have an anxious mother who is always tending to their needs, that doesn’t allow the child the ability to learn between fantasy and reality and leads to the child becoming a very dependent person -also possible to have the opposite scenario with an uncaring mother which results in a child who has a lack of trust in people The Anal Stage -about controlling the self -toilet training time period -learns to physically control their body Problems: Strict parents→ child feels like they can’t do anything right Permissive parents→ child doesn’t learn right vs. wrong *results in the child being uptight, rigid, afraid of doing things wrong, don’t trust themselves Phallic Stage Oedipus Conflict -boys discover their bodies and masturbation -become very confused because they’re told it’s allowed, but not in certain instances -they develop the fear that the dad will get angry and he will get in trouble Resolution: -boy identifies with his father and adopts similar characteristics -he then internalizes them and they become the superego Electra Conflict -girls have two identifications -first they have anger towards the mother and identify with their father -this stage isn’t complete because of the difference in gender -the girl then resolves the anger with the mother and identifies with her -she then adopts similar characteristics and internalizes those to develop her superego Instinct theory –Civilization and sublimation Civilization developed because early human societies adopted a new system: instead of hierarchy based on strength they established certain social rules (economic system of exchange, family systems, religions). In order for this to work it was necessary for people to control their animal tendencies. The only way society could become civilized was to satisfy their animal urges in socially acceptable ways given that there was no way to make these urges go away (sublimation: satisfying a primal urge in a socially acceptable way). Ex) simulating competition in safer ways (sports, certain careers) st​ –1​ theory of instincts: sexual and ego instincts 1​theory of instincts: Freud argued that people have two instinctsà sexual instincts ego instincts Sexual: about any kind of pleasure or enjoyment (the desire to enjoy things) Ego: the need to protect one’s own self (self-preservation) –2 ​dtheory of instincts: sexual Freud changed his theory because he realized that those two instincts are somehow related to each other (always balance the other one out)à resulted in just sexual People can experience desire in two ways: in the environment (desire for pleasure) or they can direct that desire towards themselves (self-preservation) *followed during most of his life* rd​ –3 ​ theory of instincts: Eros and Thanatos Freud added to the second theory (two instincts: Eros and Thanatos) Eros: the need we experience as desire (external or self) Thanatos: the desire for self destruction, experience danger (don’t normally experience, not suicide related) If we only had the desire to feel good we’d never take any risks or put ourselves in danger (primitive times and hunting). Transference (3 ​dmodel of treatment) 1​abreaction (getting people to express feelings) nd​ 2​insight (getting people to understand their feelings) Involves experiencing feelings towards a person because that person reminds you of someone else (ex~ feeling angry towards your wife because she reminds you of your mother). More likely to happen if the two people resemble each other, or if the relationship you have with those two people is similar and in therapy with the person’s therapist. Less likely to happen if you can see differences between the two people. Freud thought that was important because: It allowed the therapist to help the client achieve insight by discussing feelings that the client had toward the therapist. (adv. Allowed discussion of feelings at that moment when the feelings occurred in the therapy room, which is much better than discussing feelings that happened a couple days ago {working with a memory of something}). Working in the here and now. Theory of Anxiety: argued that anxiety (fear) sometimes is a normal feeling, even useful. It is normal because it helps us avoid danger almost like an alarm (but only if there is a real danger). Realistic Anxiety: realistic only if there is something in the environment that is dangerous and is threatening the ego (origin is external). Neurotic Anxiety: things that make people scared that aren’t dangerous (ex. Fear of spiders). Anxiety has nothing to do with {the spider}, but something internal. Based on the ID threatening the ego. Free Floating: same as generalized, person feels anxious all the time Panic Attacks: occasional experiences of very intense fear, tend to be unpredictable, not triggered by anything specific. Many people who have these are afraid to do things in case of the embarrassment ​hobias: fear of something specific, people develop phobias in order to avoid having panic attacks (like a coping mechanism, “scheduled” experiences of fear) Moral Anxiety: people don’t experience it as fear, but rather have the feeling of guilt (not something they’ve done, but something they have the intention to do). Arises from the person having the intention to do something (in the ego) and the superego judges the person and that makes the person feel bad. Theory of Depression Mourning: depression is a normal feeling in most scenarios (realistic). Wouldn’t put themselves down, they would just be upset. Melancholia: people get depressed and have no good reason for it. Argued that the difference between normal and abnormal depression is that in the case of melancholia the person also has low self-esteem. **When all people lose something they experience contradictory feelings: love and anger. Love: desire for whatever it was they lost to come back. Anger: angry that what they lost is gone. Identification: when a person adopts characteristics of another person, how people try and resolve the loss, most times unconsciously. **Those who have a weak ego, when they identify with the person they lost they begin to direct all the feelings of anger towards that part of themselves that is the same as the other person Treatment: getting that person to express anger at something other than themselves (the therapist especially). This can be risky because the client could quit therapy out of anger. Alfred Adler -was a friend of Freud's, however they disagreed on theories and didn’t continue the friendship -mainly didn’t agree on the most important need that human beings have Freud: to experience pleasure and avoid pain Adler: to contribute in society, being useful in the group you belong to Social Interest -contributing in society -feeling fulfilled by being useful in your group -thought this was the most important need Problem: we see people who put in effort and try to be useful and help others, however we also see selfish people as well. Theory needs to account for selfishness, why do people become selfish Inferiority and Superiority Complex Inferiority:everyone experiences it from day one (during childhood years) with parents and older siblings with them being able to do more things than they can (maybe physical- overweight, being behind in typical growth and maturation) -If someone feels inferior then they feel that they don’t have what it takes to be helpful and contribute -Child soon develops a desire to compensate and prove themselves from their inferiority (proving superiority) Superiority: competitive, proving themselves: how they develop selfish-ness (nothing but an effort to prove superiority) -most people struggle with this -the healthy person is someone who is not competitive but knows how to cooperate with people and work together with others -if a person who experienced a relationship based on cooperation then they can overcome the inferiority and superiority complex In therapy he tried to develop a relationship with the client that stimulated a cooperative one so they could overcome whichever they felt -client comes in with a mindset of proving themselves and still become competitive with the therapist -focus is to establish the cooperative relationship to avoid the client becoming competitive **Adler’s most important psych contribution: his influence on the way we do therapy (once a week and 50 minutes longà didn’t want clients to experience feelings of inferiority or superiority based on how often/long their sessions were). Also thought that the therapist shouldn’t have a social relationship with the client. **Freud used to meet with client’s everyday of the week without a time limit and developed friendships with his clients. Fritz Perls:...

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Chapter 14, Problem 15E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. Since the solution to 15E from 14 chapter was answered, more than 313 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Visualizing ConceptsThe following diagram represents an imaginary two-step mechanism. Let the red spheres represent element A, the green ones element B, and the blue ones element C. (a) Write the equation for the net reaction that is occurring. (b) Identify the intermediate. (c) Identify the catalyst. [Sections]” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 47 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: element, ones, identify, mechanism, Blue. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 15E from chapter: 14 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM.

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Visualizing ConceptsThe following diagram represents an