Atomic and Ionic Radii (Section)
Consider the isoelectronic ions Cl- and K+. (a) Which ion is smaller? (b) Using Equation and assuming that core electrons contribute 1.00 and valence electrons contribute nothing to the screening constant, S, calculate Zeff for these two ions. (c) Repeat this calculation using Slater’s rules to estimate the screening constant, S. (d) For isoelectronic ions, how are effective nuclear charge and ionic radius related?
Zeff = Z - S [7.1]
1. How is total magnification of an image determined Objective magnificationx10 2. Determine population size using markrecapture method N=(M1)(T2)/(M2) M1=# marked and released (given) M2=# marked counted T2= total number counted 3. Determine population size using removal sampling method Plot # removed each period on Y axis Plot # previously removed on X axis Where line crosses X axis=population size 4. Determine species diversity using shannon wiener index H=Epixlnpi pi=# species divded by total multiply pi by ln of pi and sum all up 5. Determine community with highest species richness from data provided which population has the most # of different species 6. Distinguish between a monocot and eudicot flower, a perfect and imperfect flower, a complete and incomplete flower Monocot=parts occur in 3’s or mulitiples of 3’s Eudicot=parts occur in 4’s or 5’s or multiples of that Perfect=have both stamens and carples Imperfect=have stames and no carples or carples but no stames Complete=have all 4 parts (sepals, petals, stames, carpels/pistils) Incomplete=lack any of the floral parts 7. Identify functions of each parts of a flower Sepals (collectively known as the calyx)=protect flower byd Petals (collectively known as the corrolia)= attract polinators Stamen=male reproductive structure and contains filament and anther Anther=where pollen grains develop Carpel=female reproductive system and contains stigma, style, and ovary Stigma=where pollen grains attach Style=connects stigma and ovary Ovary=contains ovules that develop into seeds after fertilized. Also develops in a fruit. 8. Determine anthocyanin concentration given data Anthocyanin= A530nm(.24 x A653nm) 9. Determine Chlorophyll A concentration given data Chl a= (15.65 x A666nm)(7.34xA653nm) 10. Determine chlorophyll b concentration given data Chl b=(27.05 x A653nm)(11.21xA666nm) 11. Determine chloroplast concentration in a leaf from counts obtained using a hemocytometer (# chloroplasts (chamber 1)+# chloroplasts (chamber 2) / 2) x 10,000 x dilution factor 12. Key steps involved when performing cell/chloroplast counts using a hemocytometer 40x objective lens count # cells in 4 corner squares and 1 middle square dont include ones touching right or lower parts multiply by 5 () do same for other chamber 13. Determine glucose concentration in a sample using regression equation plg absorbance into y and solve for x (protein) 14. Interpret effects of density on protein expression from banding patterns on a gel heavier molecules will move more slowly and migrate a shorter distance down the gel 15. Distinguish between native PAGE and SDSPAGE electrophoretic techniques Native= no denaturing agents used which preserves original structure and biological function of proteins SDS=proteins denatured with SDS and reducing aents and the buffer also contains SDS 16, Describe effects of cold temperature stress on plants They accumulate sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucroses) and increase activity of peroxide enzyme 17.Interepret correlation coefficient under .3=weak .3.5= ,moderate over .7 is strong 18. Determine enzyme activity from data plotted in excel slope of line=activity of enzyme slope=rise/run 19. Identify function and structures of each plant organ, tissue, and structure examined in lab Hydrophyte=wet Mesophyte=Moist Xerophyte=dry Ground Tissues: all related to support, storage, photosynthesis, and wound healing Parenchyma=photosynthesis, storage, and wound healing Collenchyma= Provides structural support in stem and leaf stalks Sclerenchyma=Provides structural support in all parts of the plant body Vascular Tissues: Transport ofminerals, water, and photsynthetic products Xylem=transports water and minerals Phloem=tranports sugars and other photosynthetic products Dermal Tissues: Outer protective covering of plant body In leaves: -Xerophyte→ thick cuticle, multiple epiermal layers, and more stomata than other 2 -Hyrdophyte/mesophyte → large air spaces, stomata only in upper epidermis or absent For stems: Xerophyte→ mainly collenchyma in cortex Hydrophye→ large cortex and air spaces Mesophyte→ closely packed cortical cells and no large air spaces in cortex For Root: Hydrophyte→ poorly developed xyem and large amount of pholem, cortex has large air spaces Xerophytes→ xylem well developed