Atomic and Ionic Radii (Section)
Consider the isoelectronic ions Cl- and K+. (a) Which ion is smaller? (b) Using Equation and assuming that core electrons contribute 1.00 and valence electrons contribute nothing to the screening constant, S, calculate Zeff for these two ions. (c) Repeat this calculation using Slater’s rules to estimate the screening constant, S. (d) For isoelectronic ions, how are effective nuclear charge and ionic radius related?
Zeff = Z - S [7.1]
Child Labor and Slavery Basic Background most chocolate is grown in Ghana and the Ivory Coast 800,000 families in Ghana alone live by cocoa farming (there are 25 million people in the country) Slavery Claims 1.8 million children work in the cocoa farms in Ghana and the Ivory Coast brutal labor practices (traﬃcking and slavery) average cost of traﬃcked child is $250 West African Farming Families Average per capita income in Ghana is $775/person majority of cocoa farms are 7 to 10 acres (small farms) majority of farms use family labor (including children) average family size is 8 people cocoa productions more than half of farming family incomes learning through working is an important source of knowledge to learn to manage cocoa farms majority of children are in school as well as working children helping out is a long-standing social norm children take part in unsafe farming tasks – using dangerous tools, using pesticides, sustaining horrible injuries Harkin-Engwl Protocol international agreement to end dangerous child labor signed September 2001 ILO Convention 182 by signing, companies have to condemn the use of worst forms of child labor, have to work with other stakeholders to investigate and report on these problems in Ghana and the Ivory Coast, to generate and execute a program to combat abuse, and to create and fund a foundation (International Cocoa Initiative) to oversee these eﬀorts, all by 2002 (which didn’t happen) Challenges reports in 2010 conﬁrmed child labor and traﬃcking were still happening Tulane Study (on canvas) looked at worst forms of child labor (43+ hour work weeks, abuse, traﬃcking, pornography, prostitution, etc) and found 1.5 million children to be removed from hazardous conditions concluded that cocoa farming needs to be reworked Cote d’Ivoire Hazardous Conditions (2005) 35% of children work in hazardous conditions (compared to 42% in Ghana) hazardous conditions include: cutting trees, applying pesticides, burning ﬁelds, etc