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Solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro 9780321910295

Solution for problem 118P Chapter 14

Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain (see Chemistry in the Environment box in

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition


Problem 118P

Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain (see Chemistry in the Environment box in Section 5.9) can be neutralized by liming, the addition of limestone \(\mathrm{(CaCO_3)}\). How much limestone in kilograms is required to completely neutralize a \(\mathrm{3.8 \times 10^9~ L}\) lake with a pH of 5.5?

Equation Transcription:

Text Transcription:

(CaCO_3)

3.8 x 10^9 L

Accepted Solution
Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Solution: Here, we are going to calculate the mass of limestone required to completely neutralize the lake.

Step1:

pH is the negative logarithm to base 10 of hydrogen ion concentration.

pH = - log[H+ ]

Step2:

Given, pH of the Lake = 5.5

                pH =  - log[H+]

Therefore, [H+] = 10-pH 

                     = 10-5.5

                     = 3.16 x 10-6 M

Therefore, number of moles of hydrogen ion = Volume of the lake x [H+]

                                                = (3.8 x 109 L) x (3.16 x 10-6 mol/L)

                                                = 12.0 x 103 mol

Step3:

The neutralization reaction taking place in the lake is:

                        

CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+ + H2O + CO2

From the reaction, it is clear that for neutralization of 2 mol of hydrogen ion, 1 mole of CaCO3 is required.

Therefore, to neutralize 12 x 103 mol of hydrogen ion, number of moles of CaCO3 required = ½ x (1.2 x 103) = 6.0 x 103 mol.

Step4:

1 mol CaCO3 = molar mass of CaCO3 

Therefore, 6.0 x 103 mol CaCO3  = 6.0 x 103  x molar mass of CaCO3 

                                     = 6.0 x 103  x 100.0869 g/mol

                                     = 600.52 x 103  g

                                     = 600.52 kg        [1000 g = 1 kg]

Thus, 600.52 kg of limestone will be required.

                                                ---------------------

                                

Chapter 14, Problem 118P is Solved

Step 2 of 3


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Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain (see Chemistry in the Environment box in