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Solved: Explain why the concentrations of reactants and products are not necessarily the

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro ISBN: 9780321910295 34

Solution for problem 9Q Chapter 15

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Problem 9Q

Problem 9Q

Explain why the concentrations of reactants and products are not necessarily the same at equilibrium.

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 9Q :

Step 1:

Here, we have to explain why the concentrations of reactants and products are not necessarily the same at equilibrium.

A chemical reaction is said to be in chemical equilibrium if the quantities of both reactants and products have no further tendency to change with time.

At equilibrium, the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of backward reaction.

Hence, at equilibrium, the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant. But it does not necessarily mean the concentration of the reactants are equal to concentrations of the products.

 

Let’s consider an example of the following equilibrium reaction:

aA + bB cC + dD

 

Here, ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, and ‘d’ defines the concentration of reactants and products. And ‘A’,’B’,’C’ and ‘D’ are the reactants and products.

So, if a = b = c = d, then the concentration of the reactants is equal to the concentration of the products at equilibrium. But, if they are not equal, i.e if  a b then the concentration of the reactants is not equal to the concentration of the products at equilibrium.

 Let’s consider an another example of the following equilibrium reaction:

                        H2O H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

        

In pure water, always [H+]  = [OH-]. i.e, the concentration H+ ions is equal to concentration of OH-. But If a strong acid like HCl is added to water, the concentration of [H+] ions becomes high and thus the concentration of [OH-] ions correspondingly decreases. Similarly if a strong base like NaOH is added to water, the concentration of [OH-] ions would increase and correspondingly concentration of [H+] ions decreases.

Also, the ratio of concentration of products to reactants will remain same as long as the reaction happens at the same temperature.

Step 2 of 1

Chapter 15, Problem 9Q is Solved
Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J Tro
ISBN: 9780321910295

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Solved: Explain why the concentrations of reactants and products are not necessarily the