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Solved: Two gaseous reactants are allowed to react in a 1-L flask, and the reaction rate

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro ISBN: 9780321910295 34

Solution for problem 37P Chapter 15

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910295 | Authors: Nivaldo J Tro

Introductory Chemistry | 5th Edition

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Problem 37P

Two gaseous reactants are allowed to react in a 1-L flask, and the reaction rate is measured. The experiment is repeated with the same amount of each reactant and at the same temperature in a 2-L flask (so the concentration of each reactant is less). What is likely to happen to the measured reaction rate in the second experiment compared to the first?

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Week 6: Comparative Anatomy ● occipital lo mostly important for sight ● temporal lobe responsible for processing sensory information, includes fusiform gyrus (for face recognition), wernicke’s area (for speech comprehension, primary auditory cortex; medial temporal lobes play important role in encoding episodic memories ● parietal lo includes the somatosensory cortex; lesion in right parietal cortex results in hemineglect syndrome (person doesn’t process stimuli in left visual field) ● frontal lo includes the primary motor cortex, involved in executive functions like decision making, planning, inhibition of unwanted behavior ● gyrus​the ridges formed from the folding of the cortex ● sulcus​the valleys formed from the folds ● axial, coronal, sagittal refer to different kinds of cuts that are made to study the anatomy of the brain medial:​towards the middle lateral towards the side ● gray matter:regions of the brain that are rich in neuronal cell bodies; includes nuclei of brain, cerebral and cerebellar cortices ● white matter: large axon tracts in the brain and spinal cord, often myelinated ● gyrification inde a way to quantitatively measure the folding of the brain cortex across species; takes the length of the contour along all the gyri/folds and divides it by the length of the actual exposed surface of the cortex ○ GI = complete contour/outer exposed contour ○ a higher GI is associated with more folding of the cortex, and generally indicates higher intelligence (humans have a higher GI than sheep, for example) ● brainstem: sits atop the upper end of the spinal cord and includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla; manages reflexive behavior like breathing rate, consciousness, and heart rate; also involved with reward system (covered in the next section) ● hippocampus:​ important for retention and encoding of episodic memory, but not so much semantic memory ● medial temporal lobes: damage to this area generally results in amnesia that impairs declarative memory, but not so much working memory ● amygdala:​ part of limbic system that is important for the processing of emotion; also important for acquisition and expression of conditioned fear ● synaptic pruning: the loss or rearrangement of synaptic connections that we don’t use/are no longer necessary ● whisker barrel cortex the primary somatosensory cortex of rodents show overrepresentation for their whiskers → each whisker has a module of cortex called a whisker barrel that is disproportionately large compared to other cortex areas ○ demonstrates the specialization of the brain to the behavior of different species ○ for example, humans have an overrepresentation of fingers in the primary motor cortex Week 7: Reinforcement Learning/Emotion ● neuroeconomics:​ the use of neuroscience to resolve issues in economics ○ developed because rational choice models did not accurately predict what people actuall choose, since people don’t always make rational choices ● dopamine:​ neurotransmitter involved in learning and reward evaluation ● dopaminergic pathways: ○ mesolimbic pathway: VTA project to nucleus accumbens in the basal ganglia → amygdala, hippocampus, other cortical regions ○ nigrostriatal pathway: substantia nigra projects to dorsal striatum of basal ganglia ● reward prediction erro R ­ Vpredicted = reward prediction error ○ gets minimized over time ● Rescorla­Wagner learning: ○ Vpredicted = Vpredicted + α( R ­ Vpredicted) ○ first Vpredicted is the value being updated; second and third Vpredicted are the initial prediction of the values ○ α= learning rate ○ R = reward value ● temporal difference learninsuccessive states of the world are correlated over time, so our predictions about those states also change and correlate over time ○ reward prediction error guides behavior through temporal difference learning ● autonomic nervous system: responsible for unconscious bodily functions like breathing, digestion, and regulating heart beat ○ sympathetic: prepares the body for fight or flight; release of adrenaline, increases heart rate, perspiration, attention ○ parasympathetic: counters the effects of sympathetic nervous system after the body becomes aroused ● skin conductance response: measured by placing electrodes on the skin surface to measure the electrical activity in response to emotions ○ sweat glands are activated more during emotional arousal → increased electrical conductance ● nucleus accumbens:​ part of the basal ganglia, VTA projects to nucleus accumbens in the mesolimbic pathway ● ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons in the midbrain that project to nucleus accumbens ● substantia nigr dopamine neurons in the midbrain that project to the caudate and putamen of the basal ganglia Week 8: Memory ● double dissociatio using experimental behavior tests to dissociate different brain areas and functions ● in the context of tweather prediction task: ○ Weather prediction task → 4 cards predicted rain/shine with a certain probability ○ involves working memory/skill learning ○ Accuracy in skill learning for control population increases over number of trials ○ Amnesiacs (damage to MTL): accuracy improves over time ○ Parkinson’s disease (damage to basal ganglia): accuracy doesn’t improve over time ● in context of tpaired­association task: ○ paired association task→ certain pairings of cards were associated with rain or shine ○ involves episodic memory ○ Control and parkinson’s populations have about same accuracies ○ Amnesiacs more impaired in accuracy ● from this double dissociation, one can conclude that since damage to basal ganglia → impaired skill learning, and damage to MTL → impaired episodic memory, the basal ganglia and MTL have different functions for memory that are independent of each other ● classical conditioning: ○ unconditioned response (UCR): an innate response to a stimulus ○ unconditioned stimulus (UCS): the stimulus that elicits the UCR ○ conditioned stimulus (CS): an unrelated stimulus paired with the UCS ○ conditioned response (CR): the reflex that happens with presentation of the CS ○ ex: dog salivates (UCR) at sight of food (UCS) → pair bell tone with food → dog salivates (CR) when it hears the bell tone (CS) ● operant conditionin increasing or decreasing a behavior by giving rewards or punishments ● fear conditioninrats are conditioned with a tone (CS) that precedes a mild foot shock (US) → after many trials, rats show change in physiology and react in fear when the tone is presented alone (CS) → show increased blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rates, engagement of sympathetic fight or flight response ● extinctio: removal of unconditioned stimulus when subject repeatedly performs conditioned response → conditioned response decreases in absence of unconditioned stimulus ● contextual fear conditioniwhen a fear response is also elicited by features of the environment, such as parts of the testing chamber where the conditioning took place, as opposed to fear response being elicited by a cue/conditioned stimulus (this is cued fear conditioning) ● synaptic consolidati​growth of new synaptic connections or restructuring of existing ones in the first few hours of learning ● system consolidatio gradual process of reorganization of structures in the brain pertaining to memory after learning, slower process than synaptic consolidation ● standard consolidation theo​during encoding of a memory, details are stored in cortical areas involved in processing different aspects of the event (auditory, visual, etc.) and summary of the event is stored in hippocampus → during storage/consolidation, traces of the memory are stabilized → during retrieval of an event, hippocampus receives a cue that activates the various cortical traces that stored the parts of that event ● multiple trace theo distinguishes between episodic and semantic memories ○ episodic memories are always dependent on the hippocampus, and each time a memory...

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Chapter 15, Problem 37P is Solved
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 5
Author: Nivaldo J Tro
ISBN: 9780321910295

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Solved: Two gaseous reactants are allowed to react in a 1-L flask, and the reaction rate