What is vitalism? How was vitalism usurped?
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".Where vitalism explicitly invokes a vital principle, that element is often referred to as the "vital spark", "energy" or "élan vital", which some equate with the soul.
In the 18th and 19th century vitalism was discussed among biologists, in a discussion between those who felt that the known mechanics of physics would eventually explain the difference between life and non-life and vitalists who argued that life could not be reduced to a mechanistic process.
the hereditary determinants are distributed in a qualitatively uneven way within the fertilized egg. As the cell divides, the daughter cells...