What are the main classifications of hydrocarbons? What are their generic molecular formulas?
Solution 8Q :
Hydrocarbons are the organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Because of the versatile nature of carbon atoms, many different types of hydrocarbons exist.
Natural rubber, candle wax, oil, gasoline etc..
The hydrocarbons are mainly classified into 4 types:
4. Aromatic hydrocarbons.
1. Alkanes - They are the hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. These hydrocarbons are saturated with hydrogen, i.e each carbon atom is connected to a different atom and hence they are also called as saturated hydrocarbons. The general molecular formula for saturated hydrocarbons, i.e alkanes is CnH2n+2
Example : Methane (CH4)
2. Alkenes - They are the hydrocarbons that contain at least one double bond between the carbon atoms. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons where each carbon atom is not connected to different atom because of presence of double bond. The general molecular formula for alkenes is CnHn.
Example : Ethylene (C2H4)
3. Alkynes - They are the hydrocarbons that contain at least one triple bond between the carbon atoms. They are also unsaturated hydrocarbons where each carbon atom is not connected to different atom because of presence of triple bond. The general molecular formula for alkenes is CnH2n-n.
Example : Ethyne (C2H2)
4. Aromatic hydrocarbons - These hydrocarbons are the ones that have sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle. It is a hydrocarbon ring compound. They have alternating double and single bonds between carbon atoms forming rings.
Example : Benzene(C6H6)