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Answer: Balance each redox reaction occurring in acidic

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 37E Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 37E

Balance each redox reaction occurring in acidic aqueous solution.

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A&P Chapter 26 The Urinary System Urinary System  Consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.  Maintains homeostasis by managing the volume and composition of fluid reservoirs, primarily blood. Homeostatic Kidney Functions  Regulation of blood ionic composition: Na+, K+, Cl-.  Regulation of blood pH: H+, HCO-3.  Regulation of blood volume: H2O.  Regulation of blood pressure.  Maintenance of blood osmolarity.  Production of hormone: Calcitrol & Erythropoietin.  Excretion of metabolic waste and foreign substances ( drugs or toxins). Renal Anatomy  The kidneys are retroperitoneal, partly protected by the lower ribs.  Intended area is called the Hilum.  This is an entrance for: Renal artery, Renal vein, Ureter, Nerves, & Lymphatics. External Layers  Connective Tissue, Superficial to Deep: Renal Fascia- Anchors to other structures, Adipose Capsule- Protects and anchors, & Renal Capsule- Continuous with Ureter. Internal Renal Anatomy  Renal Cortex – Outer layer.  Renal Medulla – Inner region.  Renal Pyramids – Secreting Apparatus and Tubules.  Renal Columns – Anchor the Cortex.  Papillary ducts empty urine into calyces.  Calyces pass urine to the Ureter. Blood and Nerve supply of the Kidneys  Blood supply- Although kidneys constitute less than 0.5% of total body mass, they receive 20–25% of resting cardiac output.  Nerve supply- Renal Nerves primarily carry sympathetic outflow & They regulate blood flow through the kidneys. The Nephron  Renal corpuscle filters the blood plasma.  Renal tubule modifies the filtrate. The Renal Corpuscle  The Renal Corpuscle consists of two parts:  The Glomerulus is a mass of capillaries.  The Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule has a visceral layer of podocytes which wrap around the capillaries.  The Glomerulus is a mass of capillaries.  It is fed by the Afferent Arteriole and drains into the Efferent Arteriole.  Mesangial cells are contractile and help regulate glomerular filtration.  The Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule has a visceral layer of podocytes which wrap around the capillaries.  The filtrate is collected between the visceral and parietal layers.  The glomerular endothelial cells have large pores (fenestrations) and are leaky.  Basal lamina lies between endothelium and podocytes.  Podocytes form pedicels, between which are filtration slits.  The filtrate passes from the glomerular capsule to the renal tubule. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus  The ascending loop contacts the afferent arteriole at the macula densa.  The wall of the arteriole contains smooth muscle cells, juxtaglomerular cells.  The apparatus regulates blood pressure in the kidney in conjunction with the ANS. The Distal Collecting Tubule and Collecting Duct.  Principal Cells – receptors for ADH and aldosterone.  Intercalated Cells – help to manage blood pH. Two Kinds of Nephrons  Cortical nephrons- 80-85% of nephrons.  Renal corpuscle in outer portion of cortex.  Short loops of Henle extend only into outer region of medulla.  Create urine with osmolarity similar to blood. Juxtamedullary Nephrons  Renal corpuscle deep in cortex with long nephron loops  Receive blood from peritubular capillaries and vasa recta  Ascending limb has thick and thin regions  Enable kidney to secrete very concentrated urine Glomerular Filtration  Driven by blood pressure  Opposed by capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure  Water and small molecules move out of the glomerulus.  In one day, 150–180 liters of fluid pass out of the blood into the glomerular capsule.  Glomerular filtration rate – amount of filtrate formed by both kidneys each minute  Homeostasis requires kidneys to maintain a relatively constant GFR  Too high – substances pass too quickly and are not reabsorbed  Too low – nearly all reabsorbed and some waste products not adequately excreted  GFR averages 125mL/min in males and 105mL/min in females  Controlled by: Renal Autoregulation, Neural Regulation, & Hormonal Regulation Renal Autoregulation  Myogenic Mechanism- Smooth muscle cells in afferent arterioles contract in response to elevated blood pressure.  Tubuloglomerular Feedback- High GFR diminishes reabsorption, Macula Densa inhibits release of nitric oxide, & Afferent arterioles constrict. Neural Regulation  Kidneys are richly supplied by sympathetic fibers.  Strong stimulation (exercise or hemorrhage)–afferent arterioles are constricted.  Urine output is reduced, and more blood is available for other organs. Hormonal Regulation  Angiotensin II constricts afferents and efferents, diminishing GFR.  Atrial Natriuretic Peptide relaxes mesangial cells, increasing capillary surface area and GFR.  ANP is secreted in response to stretch of the cardiac atria. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion  Much of the filtrate is reabsorbed by both active and passive processes.  Especially water, glucose, amino acids, and ions  Secretion helps to mange pH and rid the body of toxic and foreign substances. Reabsorption Routes  Paracellular Reabsorption- Passive fluid leakage between cells.  Transcellular Reabsorption- Directly through the tubule cells. Transport Mechanisms  Primary Active Transport- Uses ATP, like Na /K pumps & At rest, accounts for 6% total body ATP use.  Secondary Active Transport- Driven by ion’s electrochemical gradient, Symporters move substances in same direction, & Antiporters move substances in opposite directions. Water Reabsorption  Obligatory water reabsorption- 90% water follows the solutes that are reabsorbed.  Faculative water reabsorption- 10% regulated by ADH. Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle  Water reabsorption occurs in the descending limb.  The ascending limb is virtually impermeable to water.  Na - K - 2Cl symporters are present in the ascending limb.  Little obligatory water reabsorption occurs. Reabsorption in early DCT + –  Na - Cl symporters reabsorb ions.  PTH stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+.  It also inhibits phosphate reabsorption in the PCT, enhancing its excretion. Late DCT and Collecting Duct + + +  Principal Cells- Na -K pumps reabsorb Na & Aquaporin – 2 reabsorbs water. Stimulated by ADH.  Intercalated Cells- Reabsorb K + HCO , sec3ete H+. Urine Production  Fluid intake is highly variable.  Homeostasis requires maintenance of fluid volumes within specific limits.  Urine concentration varies with ADH.  High intake – Dilute urine of high volume.  Low intake – Concentrated urine of low volume. Formation of Dilute Urine  Glomerular filtrate and blood have the same osmolarity – 300mOsm/Liter.  Tubular osmolarity changes due to a concentration gradient in the medulla.  When dilute urine is formed, osmolarity in the tubule: Increases in the descending limb, decreases in the ascending limb and more in the collecting duct. + + –,  Thick Ascending Limb- Symporters actively resorb Na , K , Cl , Low water permeability, & Solutes leave, water stays in tubule.  Collecting Duct- Low water permeability in absence of ADH. Formation of Concentrated Urine  Juxtamedullary Nephrons with long loops.  Osmotic gradient is created by the Countercurrent Multiplier.  Solutes pumped out of ascending limb, but water stays in tubule. In presence of ADH, collecting ducts become very permeable to water.  Tubular fluid there becomes very concentrated.  Movement of water also carries urea into the medulla, contributing to its osmolarity.  Medulla osmolarity is increased.  In presence of ADH, collecting ducts become very permeable to water.  Tubular fluid there becomes very concentrated.  Movement of water also carries urea into the medulla, contributing to its osmolarity. Countercurrent Exchange  Loop and duct cells require nutrients and oxygen from blood supply.  Capillaries that feed them (vasa recta) form loops like those of nephron loops in the medulla.  Incoming and outgoing blood will have similar osmolarity.  This maintains medulla concentration gradient. Evaluation of Kidney Function  Routine urinalysis primarily evaluates for the presence of abnormalities in the urine: Albumin, Glucose, RBC, Ketone bodies, & Microbes. Urine Transport Storage  Each ureter transports urine from a renal pelvis by peristaltic waves, hydrostatic pressure, and gravity.  No anatomical valve at the opening of the ureter into bladder – when bladder fills, it compresses the opening and prevents backflow.  The bladder is a hollow, distensible, muscular organ with a capacity averaging 700–800 mL. Micturition  The discharge of urine involves voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions.  Stretch receptors trigger a spinal reflex, which we learn to control in childhood.  The urethra carries urine from the internal urethral orifice to the exterior of the body.  In males, it discharges semen as well as urine. A&P Chapter 26 The Urinary System Urinary System  Consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.  Maintains homeostasis by managing the volume and composition of fluid reservoirs, primarily blood. Homeostatic Kidney Functions  Regulation of blood ionic composition: Na+, K+, Cl-.  Regulation of blood pH: H+, HCO-3.  Regulation of blood volume: H2O.  Regulation of blood pressure.  Maintenance of blood osmolarity.  Production of hormone: Calcitrol & Erythropoietin.  Excretion of metabolic waste and foreign substances ( drugs or toxins). Renal Anatomy  The kidneys are retroperitoneal, partly protected by the lower ribs.  Intended area is called the Hilum.  This is an entrance for: Renal artery, Renal vein, Ureter, Nerves, & Lymphatics. External Layers  Connective Tissue, Superficial to Deep: Renal Fascia- Anchors to other structures, Adipose Capsule- Protects and anchors, & Renal Capsule- Continuous with Ureter. Internal Renal Anatomy  Renal Cortex – Outer layer.  Renal Medulla – Inner region.  Renal Pyramids – Secreting Apparatus and Tubules.  Renal Columns – Anchor the Cortex.  Papillary ducts empty urine into calyces.  Calyces pass urine to the Ureter. Blood and Nerve supply of the Kidneys  Blood supply- Although kidneys constitute less than 0.5% of total body mass, they receive 20–25% of resting cardiac output.  Nerve supply- Renal Nerves primarily carry sympathetic outflow & They regulate blood flow through the kidneys. The Nephron  Renal corpuscle filters the blood plasma.  Renal tubule modifies the filtrate. The Renal Corpuscle  The Renal Corpuscle consists of two parts:  The Glomerulus is a mass of capillaries.  The Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule has a visceral layer of podocytes which wrap around the capillaries.  The Glomerulus is a mass of capillaries.  It is fed by the Afferent Arteriole and drains into the Efferent Arteriole.  Mesangial cells are contractile and help regulate glomerular filtration.  The Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule has a visceral layer of podocytes which wrap around the capillaries.  The filtrate is collected between the visceral and parietal layers.  The glomerular endothelial cells have large pores (fenestrations) and are leaky.  Basal lamina lies between endothelium and podocytes.  Podocytes form pedicels, between which are filtration slits.  The filtrate passes from the glomerular capsule to the renal tubule. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus  The ascending loop contacts the afferent arteriole at the macula densa.  The wall of the arteriole contains smooth muscle cells, juxtaglomerular cells.  The apparatus regulates blood pressure in the kidney in conjunction with the ANS. The Distal Collecting Tubule and Collecting Duct.  Principal Cells – receptors for ADH and aldosterone.  Intercalated Cells – help to manage blood pH. Two Kinds of Nephrons  Cortical nephrons- 80-85% of nephrons.  Renal corpuscle in outer portion of cortex.  Short loops of Henle extend only into outer region of medulla.  Create urine with osmolarity similar to blood. Juxtamedullary Nephrons  Renal corpuscle deep in cortex with long nephron loops  Receive blood from peritubular capillaries and vasa recta  Ascending limb has thick and thin regions  Enable kidney to secrete very concentrated urine Glomerular Filtration  Driven by blood pressure  Opposed by capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure  Water and small molecules move out of the glomerulus.  In one day, 150–180 liters of fluid pass out of the blood into the glomerular capsule.  Glomerular filtration rate – amount of filtrate formed by both kidneys each minute  Homeostasis requires kidneys to maintain a relatively constant GFR  Too high – substances pass too quickly and are not reabsorbed  Too low – nearly all reabsorbed and some waste products not adequately excreted  GFR averages 125mL/min in males and 105mL/min in females  Controlled by: Renal Autoregulation, Neural Regulation, & Hormonal Regulation Renal Autoregulation  Myogenic Mechanism- Smooth muscle cells in afferent arterioles contract in response to elevated blood pressure.  Tubuloglomerular Feedback- High GFR diminishes reabsorption, Macula Densa inhibits release of nitric oxide, & Afferent arterioles constrict. Neural Regulation  Kidneys are richly supplied by sympathetic fibers.  Strong stimulation (exercise or hemorrhage)–afferent arterioles are constricted.  Urine output is reduced, and more blood is available for other organs. Hormonal Regulation  Angiotensin II constricts afferents and efferents, diminishing GFR.  Atrial Natriuretic Peptide relaxes mesangial cells, increasing capillary surface area and GFR.  ANP is secreted in response to stretch of the cardiac atria. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion  Much of the filtrate is reabsorbed by both active and passive processes.  Especially water, glucose, amino acids, and ions  Secretion helps to mange pH and rid the body of toxic and foreign substances. Reabsorption Routes  Paracellular Reabsorption- Passive fluid leakage between cells.  Transcellular Reabsorption- Directly through the tubule cells. Transport Mechanisms  Primary Active Transport- Uses ATP, like Na /K pumps & At rest, accounts for 6% total body ATP use.  Secondary Active Transport- Driven by ion’s electrochemical gradient, Symporters move substances in same direction, & Antiporters move substances in opposite directions. Water Reabsorption  Obligatory water reabsorption- 90% water follows the solutes that are reabsorbed.  Faculative water reabsorption- 10% regulated by ADH. Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle  Water reabsorption occurs in the descending limb.  The ascending limb is virtually impermeable to water.  Na - K - 2Cl symporters are present in the ascending limb.  Little obligatory water reabsorption occurs. Reabsorption in early DCT + –  Na - Cl symporters reabsorb ions.  PTH stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+.  It also inhibits phosphate reabsorption in the PCT, enhancing its excretion. Late DCT and Collecting Duct + + +  Principal Cells- Na -K pumps reabsorb Na & Aquaporin – 2 reabsorbs water. Stimulated by ADH.  Intercalated Cells- Reabsorb K + HCO , sec3ete H+. Urine Production  Fluid intake is highly variable.  Homeostasis requires maintenance of fluid volumes within specific limits.  Urine concentration varies with ADH.  High intake – Dilute urine of high volume.  Low intake – Concentrated urine of low volume. Formation of Dilute Urine  Glomerular filtrate and blood have the same osmolarity – 300mOsm/Liter.  Tubular osmolarity changes due to a concentration gradient in the medulla.  When dilute urine is formed, osmolarity in the tubule: Increases in the descending limb, decreases in the ascending limb and more in the collecting duct. + + –,  Thick Ascending Limb- Symporters actively resorb Na , K , Cl , Low water permeability, & Solutes leave, water stays in tubule.  Collecting Duct- Low water permeability in absence of ADH. Formation of Concentrated Urine  Juxtamedullary Nephrons with long loops.  Osmotic gradient is created by the Countercurrent Multiplier.  Solutes pumped out of ascending limb, but water stays in tubule. In presence of ADH, collecting ducts become very permeable to water.  Tubular fluid there becomes very concentrated.  Movement of water also carries urea into the medulla, contributing to its osmolarity.  Medulla osmolarity is increased.  In presence of ADH, collecting ducts become very permeable to water.  Tubular fluid there becomes very concentrated.  Movement of water also carries urea into the medulla, contributing to its osmolarity. Countercurrent Exchange  Loop and duct cells require nutrients and oxygen from blood supply.  Capillaries that feed them (vasa recta) form loops like those of nephron loops in the medulla.  Incoming and outgoing blood will have similar osmolarity.  This maintains medulla concentration gradient. Evaluation of Kidney Function  Routine urinalysis primarily evaluates for the presence of abnormalities in the urine: Albumin, Glucose, RBC, Ketone bodies, & Microbes. Urine Transport Storage  Each ureter transports urine from a renal pelvis by peristaltic waves, hydrostatic pressure, and gravity.  No anatomical valve at the opening of the ureter into bladder – when bladder fills, it compresses the opening and prevents backflow.  The bladder is a hollow, distensible, muscular organ with a capacity averaging 700–800 mL. Micturition  The discharge of urine involves voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions.  Stretch receptors trigger a spinal reflex, which we learn to control in childhood.  The urethra carries urine from the internal urethral orifice to the exterior of the body.  In males, it discharges semen as well as urine.

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Chapter 18, Problem 37E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

The answer to “?Balance each redox reaction occurring in acidic aqueous solution.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 9 words. Since the solution to 37E from 18 chapter was answered, more than 301 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 37E from chapter: 18 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 02/22/17, 04:35PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: acidic, aqueous, balance, occurring, reaction. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 82 chapters, and 9454 solutions.

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Answer: Balance each redox reaction occurring in acidic