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A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn2+ half-cell and a

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 77E Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 77E

A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni2+ half-cell at 25 oC. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.100 M, respectively.

a. What is the initial cell potential?

b. What is the cell potential when the concentration of Ni2+ has fallen to 0.500 M?

c. What are the concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.45 V?

Step-by-Step Solution:
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Angel Carrasquillo CHM 132 Notes Week of 01/24/31 ● Hess’s Law - The total enthalpy is the sum of all changes. Enthalpy is a state function. - ΔHrxn = ΣΔH products - ΣΔH rectants ● ΔHrxn from Bond Dissociation Energy - Bond break absorbs energy - Bond make releases energy - BDE (+) is a homolytic bond cleavage - So… H----H →H + H - each H has its own electron when bond is broken - ΔHrxn = ΣΔH broken - ΣΔH formed (bonds broken and formed) ● Entropy (S) - Organization of energy - spread of energy → ↑entropy ΔS= (+) - Favorable ● Isothermal - Reversal: Rxn always at equilibrium, work put in=work put out, at equilibrium no energy lost or gained. - Irreversible: Work is heat, E conversion from ordered to disordered ● qrev = -wrev = nRTln(V2/V1) - ΔE= 0 qnet(wrev)=0 - S = Kb(lnΩ) Ω= microstate Kb= R/NA - ↑S is favorable ● 3rd Law of Thermodynamics - S = 0 for perfect crystal at 0 K - absolute energy can be calculated ● For ideal gases - ΔS = nR*ln(V2/V1) ● 2nd law of thermodynamics - spontaneous forward rxn - ΔSuniverse = (+) = ΔSrxn + ΔSsurroundings ● ↑Temp results in ΔS = (+) - increase in entropy for increase in temp - for gas, ↑V = ΔS (+) - and increase in # gas molecules = ΔS (+) ● ΔHrxn (-) is related to ΔSsurroundings - ΔSsurroundings = -ΔHrxn/T - ΔSuniverse = ΔSsurrounding + ΔSrxn….if (+), then forward rxn is spontaneous ● with Δ Hrxn and ΔSrxn, ΔSuniverse is (+), there

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Chapter 18, Problem 77E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3. Since the solution to 77E from 18 chapter was answered, more than 350 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 77E from chapter: 18 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 02/22/17, 04:35PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Cell, potential, concentrations, initial, half. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 82 chapters, and 9454 solutions. The answer to “?A voltaic cell consists of a Zn/Zn2+ half-cell and a Ni/Ni2+ half-cell at 25 oC. The initial concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ are 1.50 M and 0.100 M, respectively. a. What is the initial cell potential? b. What is the cell potential when the concentration of Ni2+ has fallen to 0.500 M? c. What are the concentrations of Ni2+ and Zn2+ when the cell potential falls to 0.45 V?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 69 words. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247.

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