Consider the electrolytic cell:
a. Label the anode and the cathode and indicate the half reactions occurring at each.
b. Indicate the direction of electron flow.
c. Label the terminals on the battery as positive or negative and calculate the minimum voltage necessary to drive the reaction.
CHM 211 Week 3 Notes - Monday’s Lecture - use of curved arrows - relative important in resonance structures 2.8 The Use of Curved Arrows in Drawing Resonance Structures - curved arrows in a resonance structure do not mean that the electrons in the structure are moving - the arrows are a guide for the eyes to show the connection between the resonance structures and how electrons are delocalized over all of the structures - example: Rules for drawing curved arrows: 1) you cannot break single bonds 2) you cannot exceed an octet of electrons for second row elements 2.9 Formal Charges in Resonance Structure - The formal charge on all resonance structures must be the same 2.10 Patterns in Resonance Structure - the ﬁrst pair of electrons cannons participate in forming a double bond, but the second one can - the teacher said this would be a good one to practice drawing on your own Here are some more examples of resonance structures: - The note at the bottom concerns conjugated double bonds which are shown in the example above it. These bonds are separated by only one single bond. - some resonance structures have different contributions to the true structure than others. - In the Benzene structure shown here: - Both of these structures contribute evenly to the true structure - This means that the bonds are actually a mix between a single bond and a double bond - All of the carbon-carbon bonds in Benzene are identical. They all have the same length. Any single Benzene structure would fail to represent this t