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Write equations for the half-reactions that occur at the

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 95E Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 95E

Write equations for the half-reactions that occur at the anode and cathode for the electrolysis of each aqueous solution:

a. NaBr(aq)                 b. PbI2(aq)                 c. Na2SO4(aq)

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Diversity & Unity of Life Evolutionary Theory: o Today scientists agree that all living things on earth share a common ancestor o All existing types of life today developed from said common ancestor o The differences arose from differences in environments, and by chance The Tree of Life, Taxonomy & Diversity Theory of Common Descent: o The common ancestor is like a tree trunk o Current species = top branches o Major groupings = more recent divergences o Closer branches = the more two species are related o Lower branches = long ago o Higher branches = more recent  DNA comparison can determine species’ relatedness  Biological classification- scientists attempt to organize bio-diversity into discrete and logical categories (KPCOFGS) o Kindgom, Phylom, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species- scientific name 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya o Bacteria: single celled, make on food, prokaryotic ex: salmonella, ecoli o Archaea: prokaryotes, most single celled, mostly stationary, extremophiles o Eukarya: Contains 4 Kingdoms… o Protista: most single-celled, some plant-like (algae) animal- like(amoeba) or fungi-like(Chytrid) o Fungi: multicellular, reproduce by spores, rely on other organisms for food, body made up of hyphae (mushrooms, mildew, yeast) o Plantae: multicellular, make own food, largely stationary o Animalia: multicellular, rely on other organisms for food, mobile for at least part of life cycle The Classification of Life (table) Linnaean Classification of Humans: Cladogram: What is Evolution  A process of change in characteristic of a population of organisms over generations Evolutionary Theory o All species present today are descendants of a common ancestry and represent millions of years of microevolution through natural selection  Collectively- all the changes that transform life on earth o Produces a wide diversity of organisms  A genetically based phenotypic change in population of organisms over successive generations Evidence for Evolution  Fossils- radiocarbon dating used to determine age of fossils  Comparative anatomy  Comparative embryology  Biogeography  Molecular biology Evidence from Biogeography  Biogeography: pattern of distribution of species on the continents o support common descent. Also plate tectonics influence distribution o Species more closely match those that are geographically nearby, even when the environments for the two differ a good deal Taxonomy is based on:  DNA: the more closely related the DNA, the more closely related the organisms  Homology: common structures in differing organisms that may result from common ancestry Evidence of Homology  Homology: the similarity in characteristics resulting from common ancestry o Test can help determine if Linnaean classifications are correct about similarities between organisms (ex: humans & chimps) o Behavior, DNA, and anatomy can be observed and tested  Divergence: comparable body parts became modified in different ways in different lines of descent from a common ancestor o Same structure, looks different b/c different function o Ex: sea lion flipper bones, human arm bones  Convergence: different structure, but looks similar b/c same function o Ex: bat wings, eagle wings  Vestigial traits: useful in other animals, useless in others (used to be useful) o Ex: tailbone- useful in primates, useless in humans Using Molecules to Track Evolution  Molecular Clock Hypothesis o Used to calculate the time of origin on one lineage relative to others, o States that the rate of change in some DNA sequences seems to be relatively constant  “The Great Chain of Being”- Aristotle o Puts forth that the universe is perfect and there is no change. All species are in order, from the “lowest” (worms) to “highest” (humans)  Linnaeus “Father of Taxonomy” early 1700s  Classified species, believed in unchanging order of life created by God  2 Kingdoms: animalia, vegetabilia. KPCOFGS  Based on shared physical similarities, Binomial nomenclature Charles Darwin o Promoted theory of evolution mid-1800s, went on Voyage of the Beagle o 1859 “On the Origin of Species”- how does evolution occur Galapagos o After voyage, Darwin concluded that different subspecies on different islands must have evolved form a single ancestral population o Hypothesis of common descent- all modern organisms are descendent from a single common ancestor  Main point is hypothesis proposing how species come about- the process of evolution through natural selection  Also presents evidence in support of the common descent theory Evolution & Darwin’s Observations  Based on observations, Variation within a species, TIME  Characteristics are inherited, Many offspring born, not all live to reproduce  Some offspring have characteristics that give them good survival chance Observation #1: o Individuals within populations vary: Observation #2: o Some variation among individuals can be passed on to their offspring (heritability): Observation #3: o Populations of organisms produce more offspring than will survive: Observation #4: o Survival and Reproduction are not Random:  Fitness: the relative survival and reproduction of one variant compared to others in the same population  Adaptations: traits that increase an individuals fitness in a particular environment  Individuals with high fitness have more characteristics that are appropriate for that particular environment o ‘Survival of the Fittest’- relative to climate/environment  Natural selection results in the survival of individuals who are best for the current environment given the current variants in the population Darwin’s Inference  Natural Selection Causes evolution o Natural selection ‘selects for’ adaptive characteristics o Individuals with high fitness reproduce more often o Those adaptive alleles are passed on more often MicroEvolution  Small changes, still same species, occurs over a long time  Change in allele frequencies of a population over time  Gene Pool: all of the alleles in a population  Populations evolve due to… o Diversity, environment… Diversity arises from…  Meiosis: crossing over, independent assortment  Sexual reproduction, mutations  Mate selection (nonrandom mating)  Migration (gene flow)  Fitness: having alleles suited to an environment o The more fit, the more reproduction  Sexual Selection: nonrandom mating, alleles for preferred traits prevail Production of New Alleles- 3 gene mutation types:  Beneficial- bestows an advantage, confers fitness.  Neutral. And Harmful- typically results in death Gene Flow- Migration Gene flow: a physical flow of alleles between populations, tends to counter genetic difference that we expect to arise through mutations & natural selection Emigration (move out) Immigration (move in) o helps keep separated populations genetically similar Genetic Drift Chance of alteration of allele frequency in a population Bottleneck Effect: disease kills off members Founder Effect: small part of the population moves to a new area and they bring only a portion of the gene pool. Can give rise to dangerous disorders Natural Selection Results from Current Environmental Conditions…Results: Directional o Traits move in a particular direction, like towards larger beak sizes Stabilizing o Extremes are selected against and the traits of the population remain the same because the average condition is the most fit Disruptive (or Diversifying) o Average condition is least fit, extremes are preferred instead Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium  States that there will be no change in allele frequencies if: o Population is large, Mating is totally random o No immigration/emigration, No mutations, no natural selection Artificial VS. Natural Selection  Artificial: Humans act as environment, seen in animals (dogs) plants (crops)  Natural: Depends on environment, fitness, unequal reproductive success MacroEvolution  Large changes, new species, occurs over a super duper long time  Species: a group of individuals that, in nature, can interbreed and produce fertile offspring by cannot reproduce with members of other species o A single species makes up an impermeable container for its gene pool 3 Conditions for Speciation (macroevolution)  1) Separation of population into 2 groups  2) Environmentally different in the 2 areas causing genetic divergence  3) Development of mechanisms for reproductive isolation  Isolation of populations leads to divergent traits; migration leads to speciation  Physical separation leads to Speciation Reproductive Isolation: Are viable fertile offspring produced Temporal Isolation: o Different breeding seasons, no mating Behavioral Isolation: o No mate attraction due to behavioral differences, no mating  Ecological Isolation: o Different microclimates, No mating  Mechanical Isolation: o Physical incompatibility of reproductive structures o Attempted mating  Gamete Isolation: o No fertilization, mating, Games don’t fuse- sperm does not penetrate egg  Hybrid Inviability: o Mating, fertilization, hybrid doesn’t survive long after conception Hybrid Infertility: o Mating, Fertilization, Hybrid offspring survives, Hybrid is sterile Does Evolution Occur Gradually  Gradualism: slowly and smoothly over time (ramp)  OR Punctuated Equilibrium: long static periods then quickly (staircase)  Human races are not biological groups, we have never been truly isolated D I S E A S E S Communicable Diseases: Still Kill  Infectious Disease, Ecological Disease Emergent Disease - completely new or has not been in an area for over 20 years Emergent & Ecological Diseases: Connection Conservation Medicine: o How our environmental changes threaten our own health, as well as the natural communities Zoonotic Diseases: o Infectious diseases of animals that can transmit disease to humans  Ex: Lyme Disease, Rabies Zika Virus  From monkeys & mosquiotoes in Uganda to humans in Brazil  only 20% of infected people get sick and symptoms fade quickly  increasing strong evidence for birth defects  makes a bee-line for the brain What Causes These Diseases  Infectious Pathogens and Agents like… o Bacteria o Prions o Viruses o Eukaryotic Pathogens  Prokaryotic Cells o Bacteria reproduced using binary fission o Can happen as rapidly as every 20-30 minutes o Most common cause of infectious agents o Specific bacterial species attack specific tissues  Eukaryotic Cells o Parasites:  Malaria, African Sleeping Sickness, Amebic Dystentary, Giardia o Worms (Helminths) o Insects/Arachnids  Non-Living Infectious Agents: o Viruses: made of protein and DNA/RNA  Do not demonstrate any of the characteristics of living things  Cannot be treated with antibiotics  Can only be “killed” by the immune system o Viroids: made of protein RNA  Only known human disease is Hepatitis D, destroys liver  Disguises self as Hep B. Many plan pathogens  Many plan pathogens o Prions: made of carbohydrates and protein  Causes other proteins to malform & become prions  As more collect, they destroy brain & nerve cells  Cause no immune response.  So much is unknown about these infectious agents How do they Cause Diseases  Use nutrients required by other cells, produce toxins, destroy tissue Immune System Defenses  First Line: non specific response o Skin & mucous members  Second Line: specific responses o White blood cells (macrophages) proteins (interferon) and inflammation  Third Line: o Lymphocytes (B & T cells) o They remember the disease and how to fight it The Disease Process  Asymptomatic: carrier of the disease, but does not show symptoms  Incubation: disease agent multiplies  Quarantine: those who have been exposed to a contagious disease but who may or may no become ill  Isolation: persons who are known to be ill with a contagious disease  Vector: living  Fomites: non living  Ways Disease is Spread: o Exposure to bodily fluids o Transmission through intermediate host o Inhalation, ingestion Vaccines VS Antibiotics  Vaccines: o Prevent diseases o Causes immune system to recognize disease o Does not kill bacterial disease, but can prevent diseases caused by bacterial toxins  Antibiotics: o Treats existing disease o No affect on immune system o Cannot eliminate a viral infection

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Chapter 18, Problem 95E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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