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The combined molecular kinetic energies of molecules in a

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt ISBN: 9780321909107 29

Solution for problem 17E Chapter 18

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Problem 17E

The combined molecular kinetic energies of molecules in a cool lake are greater than the combined molecular kinetic energies of molecules in a cup of hot tea. Pretend you partially immerse the teacup in the lake and that the tea ?absorbs? 10 calories from the water and becomes hotter, while the water that gives up 10 calories becomes cooler. Would this energy transfer violate the first law of thermodynamics? The second law of thermodynamics? Defend your answers.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Solution 17E STEP 1: The combined kinetic energy of the cool lake is greater than the cup of hot tea. Obviously the number of molecules is more in the lake than the tea cup. So the total kinetic energy is greater for the lake. But from statistical mechanics we know that, the average kinetic energy of a system determines the temperature of the system. So, the average kinetic energy of the cup of hot tea must be higher than the average kinetic energy of the lake. Otherwise the cup of tea would have less temperature than the lake, which is not the case here. STEP 2: As you immerse the cup partially into the lake, if the tea cup absorbs 10 cal from the lake and becomes hotter, it would not violate the 1st law of thermodynamics. The 1st law states that, dE = dQ dW -------------------(1) This tells that the change in internal energy of the system is the difference between the amount of heat added to the system and work done by the system....

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 18, Problem 17E is Solved
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Textbook: Conceptual Physics
Edition: 12
Author: Paul G. Hewitt
ISBN: 9780321909107

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