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Molecules in the combustion chamber of a rocket engine are

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt ISBN: 9780321909107 29

Solution for problem 35E Chapter 18

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Problem 35E

Molecules in the combustion chamber of a rocket engine are in a high state of random motion. When the molecules are expelled through a nozzle in a more ordered state, will their temperature be more, less, or the same as their initial temperature in the chamber before being exhausted?

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Solution 35E The molecules inside the combustion chamber of the rocket were in a high state of randomness. When they will be more ordered while coming out through a nozzle, the randomness decreases. STEP 1: Here we should consider two cases. One is from statistical mechanics, which is, the average kinetic energy of a system determines the temperature of the system. So, if the average kinetic energy is high the temperature will be high. So, statistical mechanics tells that, when the molecules will come out through the nozzle, their speed will increase and it will increase the temperature too. STEP 2: The second is from the laws of thermodynamics, which is always true. From the 2nd law we know that the entropy of the universe always increases. The way we have understood temperature, independent of the material and gas chosen is, dS 1 dQ = T ----------------------(1) dQ = TdS This implies that, when we add heat to a system, how fast the entropy of the system increases defines the inverse of temperature. From the 1st law, dE = dQ + dW = TdS PdV = TdS [when the volume is constant] dE = TdS dS 1 dE = T ---------------------(2) So, this says that, the increase in entropy with respect to the increase in internal energy defines the inverse of temperature. STEP 3: The above definition of temperature tells us everything about temperature. When the molecules will come out through the nozzle from the combustion chamber, they are more ordered which shows the decrease in randomness and more precisely the decrease in entropy. But we already know from 2nd law, that the entropy always increases. How these both can be true. The only way by which the entropy can be increased in this case is, by increasing the temperature. CONCLUSION: So, the temperature will increase.

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 18, Problem 35E is Solved
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Textbook: Conceptual Physics
Edition: 12
Author: Paul G. Hewitt
ISBN: 9780321909107

The answer to “Molecules in the combustion chamber of a rocket engine are in a high state of random motion. When the molecules are expelled through a nozzle in a more ordered state, will their temperature be more, less, or the same as their initial temperature in the chamber before being exhausted?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 49 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: temperature, state, chamber, Molecules, less. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 45 chapters, and 4650 solutions. Since the solution to 35E from 18 chapter was answered, more than 341 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Conceptual Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321909107. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Conceptual Physics, edition: 12. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 35E from chapter: 18 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 04/03/17, 08:01AM.

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Molecules in the combustion chamber of a rocket engine are