What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
Chapter 7 North Africa/Southwest Asia Geographic Features Islam (and related culture)dominate Strong internal divisions within countries (ex: Lebanon and Iraq) Some nations without states (ex: Palestinians, Kurds, Berbers, people of Western Sahara) Some boundaries date from the colonial era = some current problems Name “Middle East” only ‘east’ from Europe “Arab World” what about Turkey, Iran “Muslim World” what about Israel Best name: North Africa/ Southwest Asia Dry World Major deserts… so most live near water Oil More than half of the world’s oil in Middle East th In early 20 century, Western countries bring $$$ and tech to local oil industry Oil brings urbanization, infrastructure Islam: Background Begins in 7 century Arabia Holy book is the Quran = revelation of God (Allah) to the prophet Muhammed Muhammed and successors are religious AND political AND military leaders… create Islamic country (caliphate) across the known world Caliphate breaks up into many groups SUNNI ISLAM (most) and SHIA ISLAM (less) Spatial Diffusion The way idea, inventions, and cultural practices spread through a population in space and time Ex: Islamization Background After WW1: the Ottoman “Caliphate” divided up by Europe After WW2, the Jewish country of Israel is created from British/UN colonies Vocabulary differences! ISLAMIC describing Islam, culture, etc. ISlAMISTS political caliphatemeaning Arab Spring: 2011present Past: many M.E. countries led by corrupt totalitarian leaders that crack down on society and on Islamists High unemployment, low median age Starts in Tunisia, protest follow, spread throughout M.E. Regimes overthrown in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen; uprising in Syria, etc. First seen as ‘democracy’, but now what Islamist takeover US perspective… Regions of North Africa/Southwest Asia Egypt Centered on the NILE river valley and delta Very populous country in the M.E. (80m) 95% live < 12 miles of the Nile Capital Cairo Sudan Civil war… Muslim north and Christian south (split) Another conflict in west Sudan, in Darfur The Maghreb Western North Africa (the Maghreb) Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco Places where African, European and Arab cultures meet Rooftop architecture Beirut, Lebanon Civil war between four different religions Iraq Mixture of 3 big groups: Sunni Muslims Shi’a Muslims Kurds Border of Iraq drawn by Europeans after WW1 Kurds Stateless nation ethnic group without a country Kurds one of the largest stateless nations in the world Israel and Palestine Israel, the Jewish state, established in 1948 Local Arabs (“Palestinians”) oppose Many wars: Israel keeps winning Ownership vs. Control Arabian Peninsula Source and focus of Islam (including city of Mecca Holiest in Islam) Most oil deposits on earth Saudi Arabia, and other “Gulf States” (Kuwait) Environmentally Dominated by desert Politically dominated by Saudi Arabia Economic activities “ across” the peninsula ( ex: inland Riyadh) Massive improvements in health care, housing, education, etc. Demographic: 60% of area’s population under the age of 21 Turkey Sits between Europe and Asia Modernization and Industrialization Growing Islamist movement Iran Theocracy controlled by Islamic leaders Shi’a Islam (Shi’ite) Central Asian Countries Because of past Soviet control, some Soviet/ Russian cultural influence today Afghanistan 1980s: poor, rural Afghan fighters fight Russians for years Soviets leave Afghanistan, but in the 1990s, the hardline Islamist TALIBAN take over Taliban impose strict rules on society Burqas, beard patrol, kites, musical instruments, girls’ schools… All information comes from Dr. Patrick Hagge