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Solved: A boxer can hit a heavy bag with great force. Why

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt ISBN: 9780321909107 29

Solution for problem 2RCQ Chapter 5

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321909107 | Authors: Paul G. Hewitt

Conceptual Physics | 12th Edition

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Problem 2RCQ

Problem  2RCQ

A boxer can hit a heavy bag with great force. Why can’t he hit a piece of tissue paper in midair with the same amount of force?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

ElbowComplex Distalhumerus Medialepicondyle • Attachmentsitefor: Olecranonfossa Jointcapsule • Deepdepressiononposteriorsurface ofdistalhumerus Ulnarcollateralligament Superficialflexormusclesoftheforearm • Proximaltothetrochlea • Olecranonprocess(ulna)fitsinto Lateralepicondyle thisnotchwhenelbowisextended • Attachmentsitefor: Radialcollateralligament Superficialextensormusclesoftheforearm Capitulum • Hemisphericshape • Situatedonanterioranddistalaspectofhumerus • Doesnotextendposteriorly Trochlea • Pulley-shapedsurface • 330 surfacearea Radial&coronoidfossae • Shallowdepressionsonanteriorsurfaceofdistalhumerus • Proximaltothecapitulumandtrochlea,respectively • Allowcloseapproximationbetweenhumerusandtheradiusandulnaduring maximumelbowflexion • (RadialHead–RadialFossa,CoronoidProcessofUlna–CoronoidFossa) ProximalUlna Largerthandistalend Olecranonprocess • Hooklikeprojection • Extendsproximallyandanteriorly Coronoidprocess • Superiorsurfaceformsflooroftrochlearnotch • Lateralaspectisasmoothovalfacet,i.e.,radialnotch Trochlearnotch • Articulateswithtrochleaofthehumerus Radialnotch • Articulateswithheadoftheradius Smallerthandistalend Radialhead • Disc-shapedexpansionofproximalendoftheradius • Proximalendisconcave(fovea)Articulateswiththecapitulum (Humerus) • Rimarticulateswithradialnotch(Ulna) ElbowJoint Hinge-typejoint(Uni-Axial) Allowsonlyflexion&extension 2interrelatedjoints -Humeroulnararticulation -Humeroradialarticulation ElbowLigaments Radial(lateral)andulnar(medial)collateralligaments:supportforthesidesofthe joint. Annularligament:holdstheproximalradioulnarjointtogether UlnohumeralJoint • Thejointisaunionbetweenthetrochleaonthedistalendofthehumerus andthetrochlearnotchontheulna. • Onthefrontoftheulnaisthecoronoidprocesswhichmakescontactinthe coronoidfossaofthehumerus,limitingflexionintheterminalstagesof motion • Ontheposteriorsideistheolecranonprocess,whichmakescontactwiththe olecranonfossaonthehumerus,terminatingextension. RadialCollateralLigament • Provideslateralstability • Resistsvarustorques • Preventselbowadduction • Rarelyinjured UlnarCollateralLigament • Providesmedialsupport • Resistsvalgustorques • Preventelbowabduction • Manycontactsports&throwingactivitiesplacestressonmedial aspectofjoint,resultingininjury ProximalRadioulnarArticulation • Pivot-typejoint(uni-axial) • Minimalbonysupport • Annularligamentmaintainsradialheadinitsjoint RadioUnlarjoint • Astheradiuscrossesovertheulnainpronation,thedistalendoftheulna moveslaterally. • Interosseusmembraneisthesiteformuscularattachmentandensuresthat theradiusandulnamaintainaspecificrelationshiptoeachother. LateralEpicondylitis “TennisElbow” – inflammation,sorenessorpainontheoutside(lateral)sideofthe upperarmnearelbow. MOI=repetitivemicrotraumatoinsertionofwristextensormuscles RiskFactors – Repetitivegripping&twisting – Poororimpropertechnique – Poororimproperequipment MedialEpicondylitis “Golfer’sElbow” – inflammation,sorenessorpainontheinside(medial)sideofthe upperarmnearelbow. MOI=repeatedforcefulwristflexionandextremevalgustorqueontheelbow Medialstrain – initialforwardphaseofthrow – handandelbowlagbehindtrunkandshoulder ElbowMovements Flexion movementofforearmtoshoulderbybendingtheelbowtodecreaseitsangle Extension movementofforearmawayfromshoulderbystraighteningtheelbowtoincreaseits angle Pronation internalrotarymovementofradiusonulnathatresultsinhandmovingfrompalm- uptopalm-downposition Supination externalrotarymovementofradiusonulnathatresultsinhandmovingfrompalm- downtopalm-upposition MusclesoftheElbow Flexion • BicepsBrachii • Brachialis • Brachioradialis • PronatorTeres Extension • TricepsBrachii • Anconeus Supination • BicepsBrachii • Supinator • Brachioradialis Pronation • PronatorTeres • PronatorQuadratus • Brachioradialis

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 5, Problem 2RCQ is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Conceptual Physics
Edition: 12
Author: Paul G. Hewitt
ISBN: 9780321909107

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Solved: A boxer can hit a heavy bag with great force. Why