What is the energy source for the motion of gas in the atmosphere? What prevents atmospheric gases from flying off into space?
Gen Bio II Exam 3 Study Guide Which of the following types of sensory receptors would sense changes in pressure nociceptors electroreceptors photoreceptors mechanoreceptors Which part of the eye is the opening through which light initially passes Pupil. The pupil is the small opening in the center of the iris through which light initially passes. When an action potential from a motor neuron arrives at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a series of events occurs that leads to muscle contraction. Which of the following events will occur last(that is, after all of the others conformational change in troponin Which of these is the functional unit of a kidney ANSWER: neuron villi nephron alveolus osteon Which of the following statements is true ANSWER: The kidneys regulate water and blood glucose in terrestrial vertebrates. Most humans have one kidney, which regulates water and electrolyte balance, removes nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and eliminates the wastes in the urine. The kidneys are paired organs that remove nitrogenous wastes from the urine. The kidneys are paired organs that regulate water and electrolyte balance in terrestrial vertebrates. What is the basic functional unit of the kidney ANSWER: The medulla. The nephron. The renal corpuscle. The Malpighian tubule. Gen Bio II Exam 3 Study Guide Which of the following represents the correct sequence of flow through the nephron ANSWER: Renal corpuscle > loop of Henle > collecting duct > proximal tubule > distal tubule Distal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct > renal corpuscle > proximal tubule Renal corpuscle > distal tubule > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting duct What is the driving force for the filtration of blood by the renal corpuscle ANSWER: The diffusion of small solutes such as urea down a concentration gradient. Higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the surrounding Bowman's capsule. The presence of microvilli. The presence of large pores in the glomerular capillaries and filtration slits. Which regions of the nephron function independently of hormonal control for the most part ANSWER: Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle. Renal corpuscle and collecting duct. Distal tubule and collecting duct. Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. In which region of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created ANSWER: Loop of Henle. Collecting duct, Proximal tubule, Distal tube Which of the following statements best describes the actions of the hormone ADH on the nephron ANSWER: ADH causes the collecting duct to increase water reabsorption by the surrounding tissue under conditions of dehydration. ADH causes the distal tubule to increase Na+ reabsorption when Na+ levels in the blood are low. ADH causes the loop of Henle to increase urea reabsorption under conditions of dehydration. ADH causes the proximal tubule to increase glucose reabsorption when the body's energy needs are high. Gen Bio II Exam 3 Study Guide Which of these is reabsorbed from filtrate ANSWER: sodium chloride glucose water amino acids all of these As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate. ANSWER: more ... urea less ... urea more ... water less ... water less ... water and urea The most abundant solute in urine is _____. ANSWER: glucose water plasma proteins sodium chloride urea (and other nitrogenous wastes) Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____. ANSWER: secretion diffusion dialysis active transport osmosis Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced. ANSWER: urine containing more glucose bloody urine urine containing a lower concentration of urea more concentrated urine less concentrated urine Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water. ANSWER: ascending portion of the loop of Henle collecting duct Gen Bio II Exam 3 Study Guide Bowman's capsule proximal tubule descending portion of the loop of Henle A drug that inhibits chloride pumping out of the ascending limb of Loop of Henle would result in _____. ANSWER: less salt in the ascending limb higher osmolarity inside the bottom of the nephron less water removed from the descending limb less salt in the descending limb A valuable nutrient such as glucose is reabsorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule into the blood through what process ANSWER: osmosis through aquaporins primary active transport using an ATPase pump cotransport with sodium passive diffusion across the cell membrane Which of the following statements does not describe a vertebrate eye It contains many light-sensing columns called ommatidia. Ommatidia are only found in compound eyes. True or false The "blind spot" in vertebrate eyes is a region of the retina that contains no photoreceptors. True. The blind spot contains no photoreceptors. Which part of the eye contains the densest concentration of cone cells Fovea. The fovea, located in the center of the retina, has the densest concentration of cone cells. Which part of the eye bends light to focus it on the retina Lens.The lens focuses light onto the retina. Which of the following statements about photoreception is true The retinal molecule changes shape when it absorbs light. The retinal molecule is the light-sensitive portion of the retinal-opsin complex. True or false Cone cells are color photoreceptors that use different retinal molecules to absorb different wavelengths of light. False. Although it is true that cone cells are the color photoreceptors in the eye, they use different opsin (not retinal) molecules in their opsin- retinal complexes to absorb different wavelengths of light. Gen Bio II Exam 3 Study Guide How is opsin function altered with a change from cis to trans conformation Opsin is activated to aid in shutting down a sodium channel. This is how rhodopsin participates in signaling light detection. If the structure of retinal is identical in the three opsin forms, how can different wavelengths of light be detected The rest of the protein has a different structure. Retinal is only one part of the entire structure. Red-green colorblindness is caused by _____. lack of a functional allele for one or more types of opsin molecules How are other organisms able to see in wavelengths that humans cannot They possess different types of opsins.Opsins are responsible for color detection. Why might someone with the common cold complain that food tastes bland A congested nose prevents the smell of food. The brain integrates signals from both the nose and tongue for the sensation of flavor. In terms of signaling, what is most significant about action potentials the magnitude the number of phases the number of partial action potentials the frequency. Frequent signaling relays a message in the neuronal circuits. A neuron sends a signal toward another neuron along its _____. axon A neuron has a resting potential of about _____ millivolts. -70. This is the resting potential, the charge difference found across the plasma membrane of a "resting" neuron. An action potential moves along a(n) _____. axon. An axon is the only portion of a neuron capable of generating an action potential. The transmission of a nerve impulse first triggers the _____. opening of voltage-gated sodium channels and the diffusion of sodium ions into the neuron. This is the first of the events listed here. As a result of the inward flux of sodium ions, that region of the neuron depolarizes. A thermosensory neuron in the skin converts heat energy to nerve impulses via a conversion called____.Sensory transduction