What hypothesis did G. F. FitzGerald make to explain the findings of Michelson and Morley?
Chapter Eleven Continued Moral Development and Aggression 03/28/16 1. The Best Parenting Style: Authoritative a. A healthy balance between b. Sets limits c. Allows for the child to have an opinion d. Kids tend to be successful and approachable 2. Emotional Parenting Approaches a. Emotion Dismissing Approach i. Childs emotions are dismissed or ignored ii. “Stop crying, you’re acting like a baby.” b. Emotion Coaching Approach i. Parent monitors child’s emotions and teaches them what that emotion is ii. Best to start around age 3 or 4 iii. Kids end up better at managing emotions, better able to focus attention, and with fewer behavioral problems iv. This is the ideal approach c. Doing nothing or remaining neutral is not helpful to the child either 3. Punishment: Spanking a. When do we cross a line b. Risk of sparking violence in the child c. Spanking out of anger = bad d. Spanking results in immediate compliance, but not necessarily respect e. Studies show that spanking a child can stunt a child’s intellectual growth; 2 groups i. Group of 2-4 year olds had IQs 5 points lower than the other 2-4 year olds who were not spanked ii. Similar results in 5-9 year olds f. Physical discipline affects brain development 4. Types of Child Abuse a. Physical abuse – use of physical force that may result in bodily injury or harm i. Includes kicking, punching, biting, hair pulling, and shaking b. Emotional (verbal) abuse – a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting another to behavior that may result in psychological trauma i. Cold parent(s) ii. Kids who were emotionally abused were 12x more likely to end up schizophrenic than general population iii. Increased depression in kids emotionally abused iv. Most difficult abuse to prove in court c. Sexual abuse – forcing undesired sexual behavior on another person i. Most under reported form of abuse d. Neglect – failing to provide a child’s basic needs, such as shelter, clothing, food, and school 5. Patterns of Abuse a. 33% of abused people will abuse their own kids b. 1/4 of marriages experience spousal abuse c. 50% of murdered women are killed by their partner d. Globally, 1 out of 3 women are victims of violence e. In the U.S., 5 kids are killed each day from child abuse f. Over 3 million kids are abused and/or neglected in the U.S. g. The U.S. is one of two countries to not ratify a UN treaty that considered abuse against children illegal 6. Factors of Delinquency a. Kids growing up in poverty b. Lower socioeconomic families have higher rates of delinquency i. Bending the rules to get by ii. Self-fulfilling prophecy c. Joining a gang to gain status and avoid being beaten d. Lack of family support system e. Parents who are less skilled at engaging their kids in positive behavior f. Knowing where you’re kids are at all times g. Inconsistent and inappropriate use of punishment increase delinquency h. No father or father figure 03/30/16 7. Rape a. According to the CDC, 1 out of every 5 females aged 12+ is raped in the U.S. b. Rape often goes unreported and is prevalent on college campuses c. Only 14% of rapes against women are perpetrated by a stranger i. 86% of rapes are perpetrated by an acquaintance d. 15% of rapes against men are perpetrated by a stranger i. 85% of rapes are perpetrated by an acquaintance e. Rape results in about 32,000 pregnancies each year f. Partner rape results in 20% of pregnancies g. Recent research has found that almost 13,000 rape kits sat around for 10 years untested h. 2/3 of college men admit to forcing sexual penetration on females 8. Prosocial Behavior – positive behavior intended to benefit others a. Appears in adolescence b. Altruism – unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others i. Purest form of prosocial behavior ii. Some argue it doesn’t exist 9. Antisocial Behavior – destructive and troubled behavior a. Oppositional Defiant Disorder – a child marked by defiant and disobedient behavior to authority figures b. Conduct Disorder – a range of antisocial types of behavior displayed in childhood or adolescence i. More commonly seen in males c. Antisocial Personality Disorder – a mental health disorder characterized by disregard for other people 10.Serial Killers a. 3 common characteristics when they were children i. Animal abuse ii. Set fires iii. Enuresis (bedwetting) – has to do with control b. Types i. Visionary – kill as they’re commanded by controlling voices 1. David Berkowitz or “Son of Sam” killed people because his neighbor’s dog told him to 2. Tend to suffer from some form of psychosis ii. Missionary – understand they’re the chosen exterminators 1. Target elderly, non-heterosexual, and/or racial groups iii. Hedonistic – act based on thrill value alone; kill for tangible reasons 1. Serial killers like Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, and John Wayne Gacy murdered for sexual gratification iv. Power or Control Oriented Killer – pleasure from asserting power over victim 1. Example includes the fictional Hannibal Lector c. Elizabeth Bathory (1560-1614) i. Hungarian Countess known for being the most prolific serial killer of all time, killing over 600 women ii. Her cousin was the king 11.Pedophiles a. Male pedophiles may develop fixation on kids due to stunted physical growth early in life or in the womb b. Male pedophiles are about 1 inch shorter than other males c. Pattern of malnourishment, infections, or exposure to toxins in childhood leads to stunted growth d. Brains are also smaller from normal adults e. Neurodevelopmental disease found in most pedophiles