A television camera lens has a 14-cm focal length and a lens diameter of 6.0 cm. What is its f-number?
Persuasion and Social Movements Chapter 7 PSM Ch. 7 Constituting Social Movement Organizations Four steps of constituting an SMO Ideograph 4 Steps of Constituting SMOs 1. Inviting - Invitations hails us to hear a message, but we have to recognize signals an if we should answer or ignore the call - SMOs need to invite the persons whose particular skills & abilities will benefit the organization o SMO complicates its tasks if it doesn’t invite people who skills and abilities that benefit the organization - Inviting consists of an inviter, invitee, & an event - Invitations gain stature when they come from people close to us & when the events will have positive outcomes - Invitation will either appeal/repel others - Constituting begins w/ a person inviting those in their network to an event that promises some kind of benefit. 2. Defining an Identity - Adds personal characteristics to the invitation o Ex. Police officer shouting “Hey you with the beard!” - Slogans define some persons as being in the People and others as being outside the People - Defining an invitee isn’t just demographics & physical aspects. It is to animate someone’s spirit and spark an identity. - Inviter must bring an unknown/dormant identity to life - Identity offered either appeal/repel others 3. Structuring the Organization - Move from individual’s identity toward a community (player to team) - Branding, logos, slogans provide “we” - Some SMOs have informal uniforms o Ex. Black Panthers: berets, shades & leather jackets - Leadership, uniforms, living quarters are ways to get members & keeping them from outsiders - SMO exists when it has a name, members, leadership, & direction o Advocate can spell out any or all of these things when constituting 4. Relating to Others - By constituting people with identity, shared past, & implied future the leader must prepare members for one of three choices - 1. Complete Separation from their previous society & other people o At most extreme, people can live in a compound with uniforms and kill outsiders o can live nonviolently & indistinguishably among others believing in a cause, sense of identification (blacks, men, women, whites) and feel nobody beyond their people can/will help them. - 2. Conditional Separation o Has condition for reconciling SMO and others o SMO can be dedicated to conditional separation until some goal is achieved, rendering the SMO useless Many move on to other SMOs Possible for old SMOs to be reinvigorated - 3. Dialogic Opposition o Minimize differences w/in the established order & positions the new SMO in dialogue w/ it Results in reframed convos with potential to alter ways of thinking about the issues that concern people o Sometimes the established order does something that angers people out of naivete or ignorance o When we become aware & change conversation, our attitudes & behaviors can change but SMO pressure is often needed for this to occur o SMO must address the question of how their People should relate to others o SMO will need to mask/negate tensions among members o SMO must provide guidance for dealing w/ differences between members and nonmembers Ideograph - Are words or symbols that convey grand ideological positions o Ex. “We the People” is shorthand for the spirit of belief in an independent nation and those who support. Persuasion & Social Movements: Chapter 8 PSM Ch. 8, Political Argument in Social Movements Given one of the seven types of political argument (insurgent, innovative, progressive, retentive, reversive, restorative, and revolutionary), be prepared to define and explain one in relation to its adjacent types. 1. Insurgent Argument - Finds societal norms, values, & institutions corrupt, dishonest, & exploitative - Vilifies established order - Holds individuals, institutions, & groups accountable for undesirable social conditions o Ex. Black Muslim leader Malcolm X blamed American government for the condition of Black America - Insurgent arguments imply that destroying the perp can cure social ills - Warn audience to beware of outsiders who advocate for cooperation, moderation, & patience - Rarely call for violet change, mostly a nonviolent argument o Not willing to let the change happen slowly but not prepared to shed blood Insurgent argument is not timid - Insurgent argument is confrontational o Focus on social ill(s), blames them on persons, institutions, or institutional values o Calls for strong action 2. Innovative Argument - Characterized by nagging dissatisfaction w/ existing order & preference for experimental change - Aversion to violence & status quo - Identify differences between traditional values & current practices and argue their innovation is more traditional than the status quo (recurrent feature of innovative argument) o Ex. King called for integration in Americanism & Christianity - Practice of institution unfaithful to fundamental values upheld by the SM - Argues major changes are necessary for established order to fulfill its own destiny - Met by the response that innovation is unwise or impractical o Anticipate this opposition by differentiating the situation to similar past situations - SM seek to have larger society commemorate historic moments & leaders o Ex. MLK day, Labor Day - Seeks substantial change to norms, values, & institutions w/o violence - Safer than insurgent argument b/c innovators embrace principles the society is founded on and claim a moral advantage over both insurgent & institutional adversaries o Innovators can confront issues in the social order like corrupt officials w/o confronting the order itself - Moderates in society can mistake innovative argument for insurgency b/c it seeks major change through “unpleasant” tactics. - When innovative arguments fail to present such a clear contrast, they can be labeled “revolutionary” 3. Progressive Argument - “systemic” approach to political argument - Objects to the way society acts on present values but accepts established procedures (unlike insurgents who seek to replace or innovators that believe in underlying values) - Progressive argument is conducted w/in “rules of the game” - Use is effective when SM seeks to institutionalize the concessions won from the system - Johnson: “Keep pride in your established system by making serious efforts to change socioeconomic conditions, or keep socioeconomic conditions as they are at the expense of proving the insurgents & innovators correct” - Seeks to stress feasibility of patience and compromise - Progressive argument can gain an audience more easily than revolutionaries or insurgents b/c it follows established procedures o Often refers to threat of insurgency to press for moderate change 4. Retentive Argument - Revolves around conservative efforts to preserve status quo - Seeks to retain important procedures/qualities that are under attack - Bridges gap between those who want the status quo and those who believe change is inevitable - Concerns cautious, minimal change. Which seems trivial to revolutionaries & reactionaries who want big change - Carries ominous tone - Seeks to save or to preserve as much of the present as possible - Presents unattractive picture of its adversaries, falsify their motives - Characterizes progressive, innovative, & insurgent argument as evil 5. Reversive Argument - Uses the “tomorrow” to argue society has gone too far & the tide must be reversed to a previous societal or political condition - Faced w/ reactionary’s call for major reversive change as well as the conservative’s call for careful, respectful change - Not moderate in tone - Must direct audience to o See current direction of society as dangerous o See an alternative direction as desirable o Provide some vehicle for facilitating the change in direction - Seeks action, it can fail for sounding too “radical” or because it can’t accomplish its 3 goals 6. Restorative Argument - Urges full-scale return to a previous state of affairs - Centers on questions of when and why society went astray and how restoration can be accomplished - Reactionaries typically propose legislative/electoral solutions, change in funding or enforcement of existing means or reconstitution of values to conform more closely to an earlier ideology - Alludes to an era or condition that was preferable to the present - It is immoderate like a reversive argument, unlike a reversive argument it presents goal to be pursued 7. Revolutionary Argument - Total overthrow of existing order but disagrees to the form and/or nature of the new regime - While these groups terrorize one another, they agree existing order is intolerable - Seek violent overthrow - Most confrontation form of political argument o Use brute force to destroy the persons & institutions responsible for society’s problems - For revolution to be considered the prevailing regime must be seen as beyond redemption - Depends on depictions of violent acts for effect (ex. terrorist groups claim responsibility for a bombing b/c the symbolic mileage gained is important) - Praises others for violence - Must shock if it hopes to persuade people to shed blood - Recommends violent actions against established order; terrorist rhetoric is largely devoid of social or political ideology - Actual violence more often polarizes negotiations and makes moderate arguments exceedingly difficult b/c they see moderation as part of the problem