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A properly exposed photograph is taken at f/16 and s. What

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli ISBN: 9780130606204 3

Solution for problem 4P Chapter 25

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Problem 4P

Problem 4P

A properly exposed photograph is taken at f/16 and s. What lens opening would be required if the shutter speed were s?

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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10: DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS This general outline is meant as a supplement to the Abnormal Psychology (4343) course taught at the University of Texas at Dallas and should not be taken as a standalone study guide for the overall curriculum. However, I do hope that this broad summary of the textbook (where most of this information comes from) helps you all in becoming successful undergraduate students here at UTD. ­ Justin Sequerra, “Normal people scare me.” – American Horror Story 1 DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS CONVERSION DISORDER AND SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDER Conversion Disorder (see definition in sidebar)  Characterized by mostly NEUROLOGICAL symptoms  Hard to distinguish from actual medical problems (may even be an actual medical problem but can’t find the source) and patients do not actively produce these symptoms (they believe its medical too)  Called conversion because they “convert” psych conflicts into neuro symptoms (occur after a time of extreme stress)  To differ conversion disorder from an actual medical problem, physicians look for oddities such as glove anesthesia (numbness of entire hand when neurological damage like this is rarely that evenly spread out) Somatic Symptom Disorder (sidebar definition)  Symptoms are less severe but longer than conversion disorder  Cause: may be known or unknown  Somatization Pattern (large/varied number of symptoms) ­ Also known as Briquet’s Syndrome ­ Pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, and neurological symptoms (expressed in exaggerated terms) ­ Lasts years and fluctuates and is found mostly in female relatives  Predominant Pain Pattern (experience of mostly pain) ­ More common than the rest and is experienced after an accident or illness that causes the pain What Causes Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders  These disorders were often referred as hysterical disorders  Most of the following views have not received much research support   Psychodynamic View ­ Freud was the first to take hysterical disorders seriously and realized that these disorders were caused by the conversion of emotional conflict into symptoms ­ Believed this is triggered by strong punishments toward women (since they have these disorders more) during the phallic stage where they undergo their Electra complexevent triggers sexual feelingshide these feelingsconvert them to physical symptoms ­ Most don’t agree, but agree that certain events from childhood may cause these disorders ­ Modern psychodynamic theorists base these disorders on primary gain (ex: fear of expressing anger  conversion paralysis of arm) and secondary gain (ex: conversion paralysis to avoid combat duty) (definitions in sidebar)   The Behavioral View ­ Rewards from conversion seem to characterize the cause of the disorders since their symptoms allow the individual to avoid events (combat, relationships, etc.) learn to display symptoms more prominently ­ Little support (the pain seems to outweigh the rewards)   The Cognitive View ­ It is a form of physical communication of their extreme emotions that are difficult to convey through speech (not to be used to get rid of anxiety) ­ Reason why children express this (little social skills)   The Multicultural View ­ Western clinicians view these disorders as an inferior way to express and deal with their emotions ­ These disorders are normal and even encouraged in non­Western countries (reason why Hispanics have most of these disorders) How are Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders Treated  Patients see therapy as a last resort (b/c still believe it is a medical condition)  Physicians focus on the CAUSE of the disorder (stressor event) by treating them with insight (psychodynamic: make them resolve their fears), exposure treatments (behavioral: have them undergo an event similar to the stressor) and drug therapy (biological: antianxiety and to a lesser extent antidepressants)  Others try to address the physical SYMPTOMS with suggestion (support w/ hypnosis to tell them their disorder will disappear), reinforcement (behavioral: take away rewards for symptoms and give rewards for good health) and confrontation (biological: tell them straightforward that there symptoms are not biologically supported)  No evaluations on any of these treatments yet 3 Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS Traditional Psychophysiological Disorders  Ulcers (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Burning/pain in stomach, vomiting, stomach bleeding ­ Psychosocial: Environ. pressure/anger/anxiety ­ Physiological: Bacteria H. pylori  Asthma (sidebar definition) ­ Psychosocial: Environ. pressure/anxiety ­ Physiological: Allergies, slow sympathetic nervous system, and weak respiratory system  Insomnia (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Last months/years, feel constantly awake and tired during the day ­ Psychosocial: high levels of anxiety/depression ­ Physiological: overactive arousal system, med ailments  Chronic Headaches (sidebar definition for the types) Muscle Contraction Headache & Migraine Headache ­ Cause (Migraine): 1)brain blood vessels narrow, 2)brain blood vessels expand, blood flows quickly, pain ­ Psychosocial (both): helplessness, anger, anxiety ­ Physiological (both): serotonin abnormality, vascular probs, and weak muscles  Hypertension (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Increase likelihood of stroke, heart disease ­ Essential Hypertension: Caused by both psychosocial and physiological factors as opposed to just physiological (10% of people) ­ Psychosocial: constant stress, anger/depression 4 ­ Physiological: obesity, smoking, high collagen levels  Coronary Heart Disease (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Leading cause of death globally ­ Psychosocial: Job stress, anger/depression ­ Physiological: obesity, hypertension, smoking What Factors Contribute To Psychophysiological Disorders  Biological Factors ­ Easily aroused autonomic nervous system to normal stress (also bio problems where weak stomach  lesions; weak lungs  asthma)  Psychological Factors ­ Repressive coping style (men): reluctant to have express discomfort, anger, etc. are more likely to have a rise in blood pressure when they are stressed ­ Type A personalities are more likely to develop coronary heart disease than Type B personalities (especially w/ hostility and time urgency) (see sidebar for definitions)  Sociocultural Factors: The Multicultural Perspective ­ Bad social conditions may lead to these disorders; reason why African Americans have a higher chance of getting these disorders relative to white individuals, since they are more likely to be in poverty and experience racism ­ Hispanic Health Paradox: Hispanics are generally healthier than blacks and whites b/c of stronger resilience (also b/c of religion and social supports) New Psychophysiological Disorders Are Physical Illnesses Related To Stress  Rahe and Holmes create the Social Readjustment Rating Scale that places numerical values to different stressor events that can happen in one’s life. (Death of spouse is highest numerical stressor)  Concluded that the greater the stress one experiences, the greater the probability of illness and even death (from traumatic stress)  Limit: only sampled white population, and not account for gender or age (i.e. college) Psychoneuroimmunology (Sidebar Definition)  Lymphocyte Groups: Helper T­Cells (identify antigens  trigger production of other lymphocytes), Natural Killer T­Cells (seek and destroy infected body cells), and B­Cells (produce antibodies which attach to antigens and mark them for destruction)  Stress has proven to interfere with the activity of lymphocytes  vulnerable to disease  Biochemical Activity ­ Excessive activity of norepinephrine (due to long­term stressbinds to lymphocytes and slows down immune function (excessive corticosteroids do the same thing) ­ Increased release of corticosteroids over long periods may also lead to increased production of cytokines which can cause chronic inflammation  disease, stroke  Behavioral Changes ­ Stressanxiety/depressed (maybe disorder)poor behaviorspoor immune system  Personality Style ­ “Hardy”/resilient and religious personalities are often more healthier (cope better) ­ People who express emotion are also more likely to deal better with stress  Social Support ­ More social support  better immune functioning when facing stress (esp. cancer) Psychological Treatments for Physical Disorders (Behavioral Medicine: see sidebar definition) Relaxation Training  Relax muscles + medicationreduce stress (esp. with high blood pressure treatment) Biofeedback  Electromyography (attach to persons muscles) biofeedback helps in the treatment of headaches/muscular disabilities Meditation  Turn one’s concentration inward, ignore all stressors, and induces a changed state of consciousness (new to Western medicine)  more peaceful/manages pain  Mindfulness meditation helps with severe pain (listen to one’s emotions w/o judgement) Hypnosis  Helpful in treatment of pain and other physical conditions Cognitive Interventions (most helpful)  Self­instruction (stress inoculation) training copes with extreme pain; rid themselves of negative thoughts during painful events and replace w/ coping self­statements Support Groups and Emotional Expression  Become more aware of their emotions and how to express them; decrease negative emotions for positive ones (even by just writing down their feelings) Combination Approaches  Psychological treatments often work the best when they are paired up with other psychological and medical treatments (esp. with Type A personalities)  Relaxation and biofeedback training are often paired up for the treatment of high blood pressure, headaches, and asthma 6 Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS FACTITIOUS DISORDER (SIDEBAR DEF)  Some may be malingering (intentionally feigning illness to achieve an external gain, like money)  Or it may be factitious disorder (also known as Munchausen syndrome named after the famous cavalry officer who often told imagined military stories)  They go to extremes to produce the illness ­ Inject drugs to cause symptoms (laxatives  diarrhea)  Often very knowledgeable about the illness they have, leave as soon as they are caught, as is more common in women (men’s cases are more severe though)  Commonalities: 1) received treatment for it when young 2) have a grudge against the medical profession and 3) have worked alongside medical professionals (nurse, etc.)  They say they have no control over it and feel great distress, depression, and no social support  Factitious disorder imposed on another (or by proxy), where parents produce illnesses in children ILLNESS ANXIETY DISORDER (SIDEBAR DEF)  Normal bodily processes trigger their anxiety (sweating, etc.); nothing can calm them down  Start in early adulthood (equal among men and women) and it fluctuates over the years  Same explanations as anxiety disorders (behavioral: classical conditioning and modeling; cognitive: misinterpret bodily processes)  Treatments: same antianxiety drugs for Obsessive 7 Compulsive Disorder and exposure and response prevention (behavioral and cognitive) with biofeedback and challenging their beliefs about their “symptoms” Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS *PRACTICE QUESTIONS* 1. Factitious disorder is also known as what a) Macdonald Syndrome b) Munkaiser Syndrome c) Munchausen Syndrome d) Manchester Syndrome 2. Name the symptom of conversion disorder that is characterized by a numbness beginning at the wrist that spreads evenly across the hand. a) Hand Paralysis b) Glove Anesthesia c) Hand Anesthesia d) Glove Paralysis 3. Which form of treatment for disorders featuring somatic symptoms has been found to have more of a significant effect than others a) Exposure and Response Prevention b) Antianxiety/Depressive Drugs c) Self­Instruction Training d) Mindfulness Meditation 4. Before conversion and somatic symptom disorder were included in the DSM, they were both commonly referred to as what a) Hysteria b) Histrionics c) Hypoxia d) Hysteresis 5. The basic psychodynamic view of disorders featuring somatic symptoms is one of what 8 a) Repression Analysis b) Ego State Resolution c) Script Analysis d) Conflict­Resolution Answers to the Previous Study Outline Questions: 1)B 2)A 3)D 4)A 5)C ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 10: DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS This general outline is meant as a supplement to the Abnormal Psychology (4343) course taught at the University of Texas at Dallas and should not be taken as a standalone study guide for the overall curriculum. However, I do hope that this broad summary of the textbook (where most of this information comes from) helps you all in becoming successful undergraduate students here at UTD. ­ Justin Sequerra, “Normal people scare me.” – American Horror Story 1 DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS CONVERSION DISORDER AND SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDER Conversion Disorder (see definition in sidebar)  Characterized by mostly NEUROLOGICAL symptoms  Hard to distinguish from actual medical problems (may even be an actual medical problem but can’t find the source) and patients do not actively produce these symptoms (they believe its medical too)  Called conversion because they “convert” psych conflicts into neuro symptoms (occur after a time of extreme stress)  To differ conversion disorder from an actual medical problem, physicians look for oddities such as glove anesthesia (numbness of entire hand when neurological damage like this is rarely that evenly spread out) Somatic Symptom Disorder (sidebar definition)  Symptoms are less severe but longer than conversion disorder  Cause: may be known or unknown  Somatization Pattern (large/varied number of symptoms) ­ Also known as Briquet’s Syndrome ­ Pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, and neurological symptoms (expressed in exaggerated terms) ­ Lasts years and fluctuates and is found mostly in female relatives  Predominant Pain Pattern (experience of mostly pain) ­ More common than the rest and is experienced after an accident or illness that causes the pain What Causes Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders  These disorders were often referred as hysterical disorders  Most of the following views have not received much research support   Psychodynamic View ­ Freud was the first to take hysterical disorders seriously and realized that these disorders were caused by the conversion of emotional conflict into symptoms ­ Believed this is triggered by strong punishments toward women (since they have these disorders more) during the phallic stage where they undergo their Electra complexevent triggers sexual feelingshide these feelingsconvert them to physical symptoms ­ Most don’t agree, but agree that certain events from childhood may cause these disorders ­ Modern psychodynamic theorists base these disorders on primary gain (ex: fear of expressing anger  conversion paralysis of arm) and secondary gain (ex: conversion paralysis to avoid combat duty) (definitions in sidebar)   The Behavioral View ­ Rewards from conversion seem to characterize the cause of the disorders since their symptoms allow the individual to avoid events (combat, relationships, etc.) learn to display symptoms more prominently ­ Little support (the pain seems to outweigh the rewards)   The Cognitive View ­ It is a form of physical communication of their extreme emotions that are difficult to convey through speech (not to be used to get rid of anxiety) ­ Reason why children express this (little social skills)   The Multicultural View ­ Western clinicians view these disorders as an inferior way to express and deal with their emotions ­ These disorders are normal and even encouraged in non­Western countries (reason why Hispanics have most of these disorders) How are Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorders Treated  Patients see therapy as a last resort (b/c still believe it is a medical condition)  Physicians focus on the CAUSE of the disorder (stressor event) by treating them with insight (psychodynamic: make them resolve their fears), exposure treatments (behavioral: have them undergo an event similar to the stressor) and drug therapy (biological: antianxiety and to a lesser extent antidepressants)  Others try to address the physical SYMPTOMS with suggestion (support w/ hypnosis to tell them their disorder will disappear), reinforcement (behavioral: take away rewards for symptoms and give rewards for good health) and confrontation (biological: tell them straightforward that there symptoms are not biologically supported)  No evaluations on any of these treatments yet 3 Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS Traditional Psychophysiological Disorders  Ulcers (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Burning/pain in stomach, vomiting, stomach bleeding ­ Psychosocial: Environ. pressure/anger/anxiety ­ Physiological: Bacteria H. pylori  Asthma (sidebar definition) ­ Psychosocial: Environ. pressure/anxiety ­ Physiological: Allergies, slow sympathetic nervous system, and weak respiratory system  Insomnia (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Last months/years, feel constantly awake and tired during the day ­ Psychosocial: high levels of anxiety/depression ­ Physiological: overactive arousal system, med ailments  Chronic Headaches (sidebar definition for the types) Muscle Contraction Headache & Migraine Headache ­ Cause (Migraine): 1)brain blood vessels narrow, 2)brain blood vessels expand, blood flows quickly, pain ­ Psychosocial (both): helplessness, anger, anxiety ­ Physiological (both): serotonin abnormality, vascular probs, and weak muscles  Hypertension (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Increase likelihood of stroke, heart disease ­ Essential Hypertension: Caused by both psychosocial and physiological factors as opposed to just physiological (10% of people) ­ Psychosocial: constant stress, anger/depression 4 ­ Physiological: obesity, smoking, high collagen levels  Coronary Heart Disease (sidebar definition) ­ Symptoms: Leading cause of death globally ­ Psychosocial: Job stress, anger/depression ­ Physiological: obesity, hypertension, smoking What Factors Contribute To Psychophysiological Disorders  Biological Factors ­ Easily aroused autonomic nervous system to normal stress (also bio problems where weak stomach  lesions; weak lungs  asthma)  Psychological Factors ­ Repressive coping style (men): reluctant to have express discomfort, anger, etc. are more likely to have a rise in blood pressure when they are stressed ­ Type A personalities are more likely to develop coronary heart disease than Type B personalities (especially w/ hostility and time urgency) (see sidebar for definitions)  Sociocultural Factors: The Multicultural Perspective ­ Bad social conditions may lead to these disorders; reason why African Americans have a higher chance of getting these disorders relative to white individuals, since they are more likely to be in poverty and experience racism ­ Hispanic Health Paradox: Hispanics are generally healthier than blacks and whites b/c of stronger resilience (also b/c of religion and social supports) New Psychophysiological Disorders Are Physical Illnesses Related To Stress  Rahe and Holmes create the Social Readjustment Rating Scale that places numerical values to different stressor events that can happen in one’s life. (Death of spouse is highest numerical stressor)  Concluded that the greater the stress one experiences, the greater the probability of illness and even death (from traumatic stress)  Limit: only sampled white population, and not account for gender or age (i.e. college) Psychoneuroimmunology (Sidebar Definition)  Lymphocyte Groups: Helper T­Cells (identify antigens  trigger production of other lymphocytes), Natural Killer T­Cells (seek and destroy infected body cells), and B­Cells (produce antibodies which attach to antigens and mark them for destruction)  Stress has proven to interfere with the activity of lymphocytes  vulnerable to disease  Biochemical Activity ­ Excessive activity of norepinephrine (due to long­term stressbinds to lymphocytes and slows down immune function (excessive corticosteroids do the same thing) ­ Increased release of corticosteroids over long periods may also lead to increased production of cytokines which can cause chronic inflammation  disease, stroke  Behavioral Changes ­ Stressanxiety/depressed (maybe disorder)poor behaviorspoor immune system  Personality Style ­ “Hardy”/resilient and religious personalities are often more healthier (cope better) ­ People who express emotion are also more likely to deal better with stress  Social Support ­ More social support  better immune functioning when facing stress (esp. cancer) Psychological Treatments for Physical Disorders (Behavioral Medicine: see sidebar definition) Relaxation Training  Relax muscles + medicationreduce stress (esp. with high blood pressure treatment) Biofeedback  Electromyography (attach to persons muscles) biofeedback helps in the treatment of headaches/muscular disabilities Meditation  Turn one’s concentration inward, ignore all stressors, and induces a changed state of consciousness (new to Western medicine)  more peaceful/manages pain  Mindfulness meditation helps with severe pain (listen to one’s emotions w/o judgement) Hypnosis  Helpful in treatment of pain and other physical conditions Cognitive Interventions (most helpful)  Self­instruction (stress inoculation) training copes with extreme pain; rid themselves of negative thoughts during painful events and replace w/ coping self­statements Support Groups and Emotional Expression  Become more aware of their emotions and how to express them; decrease negative emotions for positive ones (even by just writing down their feelings) Combination Approaches  Psychological treatments often work the best when they are paired up with other psychological and medical treatments (esp. with Type A personalities)  Relaxation and biofeedback training are often paired up for the treatment of high blood pressure, headaches, and asthma 6 Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS FACTITIOUS DISORDER (SIDEBAR DEF)  Some may be malingering (intentionally feigning illness to achieve an external gain, like money)  Or it may be factitious disorder (also known as Munchausen syndrome named after the famous cavalry officer who often told imagined military stories)  They go to extremes to produce the illness ­ Inject drugs to cause symptoms (laxatives  diarrhea)  Often very knowledgeable about the illness they have, leave as soon as they are caught, as is more common in women (men’s cases are more severe though)  Commonalities: 1) received treatment for it when young 2) have a grudge against the medical profession and 3) have worked alongside medical professionals (nurse, etc.)  They say they have no control over it and feel great distress, depression, and no social support  Factitious disorder imposed on another (or by proxy), where parents produce illnesses in children ILLNESS ANXIETY DISORDER (SIDEBAR DEF)  Normal bodily processes trigger their anxiety (sweating, etc.); nothing can calm them down  Start in early adulthood (equal among men and women) and it fluctuates over the years  Same explanations as anxiety disorders (behavioral: classical conditioning and modeling; cognitive: misinterpret bodily processes)  Treatments: same antianxiety drugs for Obsessive 7 Compulsive Disorder and exposure and response prevention (behavioral and cognitive) with biofeedback and challenging their beliefs about their “symptoms” Note: Psychology professors prefer to see the exact definitions of specific terminology whenever they are grading essays. DISORDERS FEATURING SOMATIC SYMPTOMS *PRACTICE QUESTIONS* 1. Factitious disorder is also known as what a) Macdonald Syndrome b) Munkaiser Syndrome c) Munchausen Syndrome d) Manchester Syndrome 2. Name the symptom of conversion disorder that is characterized by a numbness beginning at the wrist that spreads evenly across the hand. a) Hand Paralysis b) Glove Anesthesia c) Hand Anesthesia d) Glove Paralysis 3. Which form of treatment for disorders featuring somatic symptoms has been found to have more of a significant effect than others a) Exposure and Response Prevention b) Antianxiety/Depressive Drugs c) Self­Instruction Training d) Mindfulness Meditation 4. Before conversion and somatic symptom disorder were included in the DSM, they were both commonly referred to as what a) Hysteria b) Histrionics c) Hypoxia d) Hysteresis 5. The basic psychodynamic view of disorders featuring somatic symptoms is one of what 8 a) Repression Analysis b) Ego State Resolution c) Script Analysis d) Conflict­Resolution Answers to the Previous Study Outline Questions: 1)B 2)A 3)D 4)A 5)C

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Chapter 25, Problem 4P is Solved
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Textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications
Edition: 6
Author: Douglas C. Giancoli
ISBN: 9780130606204

Since the solution to 4P from 25 chapter was answered, more than 320 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: exposed, lens, opening, photograph, properly. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 35 chapters, and 3914 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications, edition: 6. Physics: Principles with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780130606204. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 4P from chapter: 25 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 03/03/17, 03:53PM. The answer to “A properly exposed photograph is taken at f/16 and s. What lens opening would be required if the shutter speed were s?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 22 words.

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A properly exposed photograph is taken at f/16 and s. What