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BIO Bones and Muscles. A physical therapy patient has a

University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321675460 31

Solution for problem 79P Chapter 1

University Physics | 13th Edition

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University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman

University Physics | 13th Edition

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Problem 79P

BIO Bones and Muscles. A physical therapy patient has a forearm that weighs 20.5 N and lifts a 112.0-N weight. These two forces are directed vertically downward. The only other significant forces on this forearm come from the biceps muscle (which acts perpendicular to the forearm) and the force at the elbow. If the biceps produces a pull of 232 N when the forearm is raised 43.0o above the horizontal, find the magnitude and direction of the force that the elbow exerts on the forearm. (The sum of the elbow force and the biceps force must balance the weight of the arm and the weight it is carrying, so their vector sum must be 132.5 N, upward.)

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Biology Notes 1 1/19/16  Evolutionary solutions to terrestrial environments in plants  Overview of strategies plants used in the move from water to land  Not a quest for perfection  Not a progression from poorly adapted to well adapted o Older species still exist; algae and moss  Evolution isn’t perfect, it’s just good enough o Green plants and algae share a common ancestor o Collectively called the green plants o All photoautotrophic o But not all photoautotrophs are green plants o Strain of green algae gave life to all land plants o Land plants have multicellular haploid and diploid stages o Diploid embryos  Challenges to terrestrial life o Desiccation  Cuticle  Prevents water loss and prevents gas exchange  Stomata  Allow some gas exchange  Openings on leaf o Transport of water  Tracheids  Specialized cells from transport of water and minerals  Vascular tissue  Xylem o Entire water transport system  Phloem o Food transport system o Angiosperms are the most highly evolved land plant  Seed in a vessel  Fruits  Flowers  Pollen with 2 sperm  Double fertilization  2n zygote  3n endosperm  All land plants have a haplodiplontic life cycle o Length of cycle varies in type of plant o One in which both haploid and diploid stages are multicellular o o o o o Gametophytes o Haploid o Produce gametes by mitosis o Fertilization forms the zygote  Grows by mitotic cell division o Forms the multicellular sporophyte o Diploid o Produces haploid spores by meiosis o Spores grow by mitosis to produce the gametophyte o Bryophytes o Non- tracheophytes  No tracheids  No ability to transport water  Have to get water somehow else  No roots for water absorption o Gametophytes  Dominant  Photosynthetic o Require water for sexual reproduction o Gotten out of water, but not very far out of water o moss o Tracheophytes o Vascular tissues  Xylem (tracheids)  Phloem o Waxy cuticle o Stomata o Sporophyte dominant o 3 clades  lycophytes  vascular tissue o roots and stems  no seeds  water required for fertilization  sporophyte dominant  pterophytes  ferns and relatives  gametophyte dominant  water for fertilization  no seeds  vascular tissue o roots, stems, true leaves (euphylls)  seed plants  sporophyte dominant  gymnosperms o means naked seed  angiosperms  evolutionary advantages o seeds protect embryo o food supply o dispersal other than water o dormancy o Pollen o Multicellular male gametophyte o Sperm o Transport by wind or pollinator o Produced by gametophyte stage o Gymnosperm diversity o Cycad o Welwitschia o Ginkgo o Conifers o Biology Notes 1 1/19/16  Evolutionary solutions to terrestrial environments in plants  Overview of strategies plants used in the move from water to land  Not a quest for perfection  Not a progression from poorly adapted to well adapted o Older species still exist; algae and moss  Evolution isn’t perfect, it’s just good enough o Green plants and algae share a common ancestor o Collectively called the green plants o All photoautotrophic o But not all photoautotrophs are green plants o Strain of green algae gave life to all land plants o Land plants have multicellular haploid and diploid stages o Diploid embryos  Challenges to terrestrial life o Desiccation  Cuticle  Prevents water loss and prevents gas exchange  Stomata  Allow some gas exchange  Openings on leaf o Transport of water  Tracheids  Specialized cells from transport of water and minerals  Vascular tissue  Xylem o Entire water transport system  Phloem o Food transport system o Angiosperms are the most highly evolved land plant  Seed in a vessel  Fruits  Flowers  Pollen with 2 sperm  Double fertilization  2n zygote  3n endosperm  All land plants have a haplodiplontic life cycle o Length of cycle varies in type of plant o One in which both haploid and diploid stages are multicellular o o o o o Gametophytes o Haploid o Produce gametes by mitosis o Fertilization forms the zygote  Grows by mitotic cell division o Forms the multicellular sporophyte o Diploid o Produces haploid spores by meiosis o Spores grow by mitosis to produce the gametophyte o Bryophytes o Non- tracheophytes  No tracheids  No ability to transport water  Have to get water somehow else  No roots for water absorption o Gametophytes  Dominant  Photosynthetic o Require water for sexual reproduction o Gotten out of water, but not very far out of water o moss o Tracheophytes o Vascular tissues  Xylem (tracheids)  Phloem o Waxy cuticle o Stomata o Sporophyte dominant o 3 clades  lycophytes  vascular tissue o roots and stems  no seeds  water required for fertilization  sporophyte dominant  pterophytes  ferns and relatives  gametophyte dominant  water for fertilization  no seeds  vascular tissue o roots, stems, true leaves (euphylls)  seed plants  sporophyte dominant  gymnosperms o means naked seed  angiosperms  evolutionary advantages o seeds protect embryo o food supply o dispersal other than water o dormancy o Pollen o Multicellular male gametophyte o Sperm o Transport by wind or pollinator o Produced by gametophyte stage o Gymnosperm diversity o Cycad o Welwitschia o Ginkgo o Conifers o

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Chapter 1, Problem 79P is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics
Edition: 13
Author: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321675460

University Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321675460. Since the solution to 79P from 1 chapter was answered, more than 456 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “BIO Bones and Muscles. A physical therapy patient has a forearm that weighs 20.5 N and lifts a 112.0-N weight. These two forces are directed vertically downward. The only other significant forces on this forearm come from the biceps muscle (which acts perpendicular to the forearm) and the force at the elbow. If the biceps produces a pull of 232 N when the forearm is raised 43.0o above the horizontal, find the magnitude and direction of the force that the elbow exerts on the forearm. (The sum of the elbow force and the biceps force must balance the weight of the arm and the weight it is carrying, so their vector sum must be 132.5 N, upward.)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 117 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 79P from chapter: 1 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 05/06/17, 06:07PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: University Physics, edition: 13. This full solution covers the following key subjects: forearm, Force, weight, biceps, elbow. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 26 chapters, and 2929 solutions.

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