For the velocity field of Prob. 4‒63. calculate the vorticity vector. In which direction does the vorticity vector point?
Midterm Study Guide Music History II, Spring 2016 Listening identification (~40%) Compositions to know: Be able to identify each composition by composer (including first and last name) and title. You do not need to know the specific portions for works listed (e.g.,L’incoronazione di Poppea ” suffices as a title). Be able to discuss what you are hearing: there will be multiple choice and short answer questions based on the musical characteristics of what you hear (and some of your multiple choice, identification, and essay questions will be based on the musical characteristics of these pieces). Review our discussions of pieces in class, and reread the discussions in your anthology. NAWM 71: Claudio Monteverdi, Cruda Amarilli repeat “Cruda Amarilli” in the beginning madrigal dissonance madrigalism “e piu fugace” ← elusive and descending NAWM 72: Giulio Caccini, Vedrò ‘l mio sol solo madrigal (male voice) with basso continuo/lute ornaments (trills, turns) trilli: rapid repetitions of the same pitch each phrase ends in a cadence dynamics throughcomposed (different music for each verse) differing speeds NAWM 73: Jacopo Peri, Le musiche sopra l’Euridice (excerpts a and b) [Euridice] a) Aria flute/recorders ritornello dance rhythm male voice rhyming → emphasized by two ♩ (or and ♪) b) Dialogue in recitative female voice with basso continuo (lute) starts calm and consonant then turns dramatic with dissonances, rapid movement in bass (Dafne tells Orfeo that Euridice died by snake bite) two voices interject (Arcetro and Orfeo) stronger dissonances ending is diatonic NAWM 74: Claudio Monteverdi, L’Orfeo (excerpts from Act II) a) Aria/canzonetta starts with ritornello by strings male voice light hearted/bouncy strophic b) Song: Mira, deh mira Orfeo says title of song andante male voice tuneful and brief c) Dialogue in recitative operatic basso continuo (strings) dialogue between shepherd (relaxed) and Messenger (female) ← urgent and dissonant d) Recitative: Tu se’ morta slow Orfeo’s lament dramatic building intensity through rising pitches “a dio terra” rhythmic parallelism and chromaticism and rising pitch to climax on “e sole” with leap down to seventh e) Choral madrigal: Ahi, caso acerbo andante madrigalism: voices speedup “che tosto fugge” (that soon fly away) ascend “gran salita” (steep ascent) and descend “il precipizio” (the precipice) NAWM 75: Claudio Monteverdi, L’incoronazione di Poppea (Act I, Scene 3) a) Dialogue in recitative starts with “Signor” slow guitar and female solo joined by harpsichord intense, fast with chromaticism “da me” exchange between Nerone and Poppea b) Aria: In un sospir starts with string section solo female voice lots of “sospir”s c) Aria: Signor, sempre mi vedi repeats the title several times strings, harpsichord and flutes female solo with guitar and flutes happy “non posso”s at end d) Dialogue in mixed styles happy solo female with instrumental accompaniment exchange between Poppea and Nerone trills and embellishments becomes distressed→ dissonance voice and harpsichord NAWM 77: Barbara Strozzi, Lagrime mie cantata recitative → doesn’t have a clear tempo melismatic harpsichord (imitates melody at times) and solo female voice trills and voice tremors minor key with chromaticism lament/ostenato bass NAWM 78: Giovanni Gabrieli, In ecclesiis solo joined by choir “Alleuias” voices join in one by one to go to climax basso continuo: organ male solo brass and flute instrumentation large scale sacred concerto NAWM 79: Alessandro Grandi, O quam tu pulchra es harpsichord and male solo voice title is repeated several times calm triple meter NAWM 80: Giacomo Carissimi, Historia di Jephte(excerpts) harpsichord and solo female voice dramatic conversation between roles chorus has ritornello NAWM 81: Heinrich Schütz, Saul, was verfolgst du mich male choir repeating “Saul” women join with strings repeating “Saul” suspensions and dissonance text depiction and melismas NAWM 82: Girolamo Frescobaldi, Toccata No. 3 harpsichord solo with embellishments and trills speeds up at beginnings of phrases and slows at the end NAWM 84: Biagio Marini, Sonata IV per il violino per sonar con due corde harpsichord and violin duet differing speeds: tardo, presto violin melody over harpsichord chords in bass (basso continuo) joined by more strings NAWM 85: JeanBaptiste Lully, Armide (excerpts) a) Overture snares, trumpets, harpsichord, strings and winds stately theme first part: slow duple meter/homophonic second part: fast compound triple meter → returns to first section b) Conclusion of divertissement strings suspensions, unison, flowing female solo over strings and harpsichord, later joined by homophonic choir c) Act II, Scene 5 *wind machine*, harpsichord, trumpets, winds stately theme female solo over harpsichord picks up with dance NAWM 88: ElisabethClaude Jacquet de la Guerre, Suite in A Minor from Pièces de clavecin solo harpsichord trills, literally ALL THE TRILLS descending phrase line NAWM 89: Henry Purcell, Dido and Aeneas (excerpts) melancholy solo voice over strings choir and strings in English descending patterns dissonance and suspensions NAWM 92: Alessandro Scarlatti, Clori vezzosa, e bella a) Recitative harpsichord, strings and female solo (minor key) dissonant ”pena: b) Aria dancetype rhythm repetition of “si, si” modulates to major key da capo form NAWM 93: Alessandro Scarlatti, La Griselda (excerpts) dancelike strings female solo says “Griselda” da capo form ABA/framed with ritornellos NAWM 94: Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 2 basically strings only a) Grave strings suspended over walking bass dissonant b) Allegro violins dance rhythm fugal and fast c) Adagio slow strings d) Allegro dance, fast strings fugal imitation NAWM 95: Dieterich Buxtehude, Praeludium in E Major, BuxWV 141 organ prelude fast and grand alternates between free and fugal sections Unknown listening (~510%). You will hear music not on our listening list. Using elements that you hear in the music (style, continuo, relationship of different voices/voices to continuo, structure, etc), you will describe what you hear. You will identify a possible composer for the excerpt. Note that you must justify your choice, and that your reasons are far more important than a correct identification. It is possible to receive full credit without correctly identifying the composer. Multiple Choice (~1015%): Multiple choice questions will focus on major concepts from your reading and listening, including compositional styles. To prepare, review both the assignment sheets posted weekly and your class notes. Identifications (~20%) : I will give you a subset of the terms listed below. You should explain the significance of the term to music history. In your studying, focus on the most important aspects of the terms, based on class discussion and your text. Each identification will be worth five points; you will receive a point for each important aspect that you correctly identify. Seconda pratica th Monteverdi’s term for practice of counterpoint that breaks 16 century counterpoint rules to express the feelings of the text music heightens the effect of lyrics voiceleading rules/counterpoint rules were broken dissonances used more freely (not always resolved properly) “Music is the servant of the word” Dissonances in Monteverdi’s “Cruda Amarilli” Monody accompanied solo singing solo accompanied with one or more instruments 16th and 17th Centuries Galilei was advocating this style Caccini “Le nuove musica” ArtusiMonteverdi controversy Artusi criticized Monteverdi’s Cruda Amarilli because of the needless violations of counterpoint rules and dissonances Monteverdi’s brother, in response, says that Artusi failed to look at the text which is what the music is based off of. L’Artusi overo Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica (The Artusi, or Concerning the Imperfections of Modern Music): criticism of Monteverdi’s madrigal and said Monteverdi needlessly broke the rules ● prima practica: music had to follow the rules which led how the verbal text was formed ← Artusi VERSUS ● seconda practica: music follows text, voice leading rules can broken, more dissonances for feelings/emotions (affections) in text ← Monteverdi Monteverdi’s madrigals numerous dissonances breaking rules for resolving dissonances music conveys emotions of text EX: Cruda Amarilli in the style of seconda practica, Cruda Amarilli, breaks traditional musical rules in counterpoint to portray center emotions (AFFECTIONS) madrigals were criticized due to the fact that they were in seconda practica a part of the shift of music at the time Florentine Camerata the association of scholars who discussed literature, science and the arts during the 1500s musicians performed new music at meetings camerata means circle Mei’s letters about greek music were a topic of conversation Classical antiquity was fostered by the Medici family to show their power and political standing Opera poetry, drama, and music performed from a text, usually Greek tragedy continuous music staged with scenery, costumes and action is a union of poetry, drama, music and stagecraft people used Greek tragedy as a model in early operas pastoral drama (a play with music and song put in by verse) madrigal was an influence as well intermedio (a musical interlude performed between acts of a play) Basso ostinato persistent or ground bass a pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes the bass pattern repeats while the melody above it changes most are in triple or compound meter well established in Spain and Italy of popular songs usually 2, 4, 8 measures long th any songs and instrumental work had that type of bass in the early 17 century Cantata (seventeenth century) secular vocal chamber music with continuo solo voice several movements with recitatives and arias to set a lyrical text composed for private performance Carissimi and Strozzi reserved only in manuscript Oratorio sacred music unstaged dramatic music combining narrative, dialogue and commentary arias, recitative, ensembles, choruses Italian used by the Catholic church to spread messages to people Latin – Church elites because it was invitation only Dance suite PACSG 1. Prelude: More Improvisatory 2. Allemande: Pickup, in duple meter 3. Courante: Triple/compound 4. Sarabande:Triple meter, emphasis on beat 2 5. Gigue: Fast, continuous triples Binary form two complementary sections, each of which is repeated first section ends on dominant, relative major, or tonic of new key second section returns to tonic used for dance music and other instrumental genres th 17 century dance music French overture type of overture used in tragedie en musique opens with slow, homophonic, majestic section second faster section beginning with imitation two sections played twice st 1 is homophonic and majestic; dotted rhythms and figures 2nd is faster and resembles Fugue and imitation and usually goes back to the tempo and figuration of the first section Lully’s Armide (opera) is an example of this genre King Louis XIV used art as propaganda and stimulated growth of music built Versailles to control and monitor nobles → kept them busy with court ceremonies, etiquette, and entertainment to keep them from making trouble as a result, developed distinctive French genre: court ballet, French opera etc. Dance was important to him France replaced Spain as predominant power Power and wealth more concentrated Tragédie lyrique lyric tragedy French 17th and 18th Century form of opera combines French classic drama and ballet with music, dance and spectacles Quinault came together to form a new form of French opera Sonata (seventeenth century) one or two melody instruments basso continuo several sections differentiated by musical material, mood, texture, meter and tempo Sonata in Marini’s time had rhythmic themes, scored for 1 or 2 instruments with mass continuo, imitated expressive vocal style. The two main types of sonatas around 1660s were sonata de chiesa and sonata da camera ● sonata de chiesa: church sonata, abstract movements. Often included one or more dance rhythms/binary form. Could substitute in church service in Mass proper ● sonata da camera: chamber sonata. Series of stylized dances, often begins with with prelude. Corelli’s sonatas tend to be based on a single subject/theme with connections between movements. His music is tonal and marked with sense of direction. Da capo aria ABA aria form in three sections first section is repeated after the second section ends A section is broken into two stanzas separated (or at least introduced by) an instrumental ritornello B section enters a new key and lack the ritonellos of the A section to give it contrast before we return to the A section, possibly embellished EX: Alessandro Scarlatti’s Clori Vezzosa, e bella. Short Essays (~20%) will address questions including: Identify the three main types of monody (hint: think about Caccini and Peri’s compositions), describe their musical characteristics, and give an example of each from your listening. ● Monody is a single line of melody accompanied by a continuo instrument. ● Three types of monody: ● Aria lyrical melody, used in an opera to develop a single character’s emotion or feeling. EX: Peri’s Le Musiche Sopra l’Euridice, Nel Pur Ardor. ● Recitative moves through text quickly, used in opera to get through a large amount of time or a series of events. EX: Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo, Dialogue in Recitative, Ah Casi Acerbo. ● Solo madrigal through composed, more specific distinction of the traditional madrigal, non strophic. EX: Caccini’s Vedro l’Mio Sol. What is the ArtusiMonteverdi controversy Give at least one specific musical example, and explain who responded and how. Review the source documents in your text. ● prima practica (Zarlino): music had to follow the rules which led how the verbal text was formed ← Artusi VERSUS ● seconda practica: music follows text, voice leading rules can broken, more dissonances for feelings/emotions (affections) in text ← Monteverdi ● Artusi criticized EX: Monteverdi’s Cruda Amarilli for needless violations of the rules of counterpoint ● Artusi believes dissonances should resolve because it violates counterpoint rules (prima practica) ● In response, Monteverdi’s brother argues that Artusi failed to notice the text which was what the music was based off (seconda practica) Describe the origins of opera. What genres influenced it What was the role of the Florentine Camerata (and identify several figures involved with the Camerata) Identify some early operas and give dates. When did opera spread to Venice What was the first public opera house ● Opera is an union of opera, poetry, and staging ● in attempt to recreate Greek tragedy ← they thought that was the way epic poems/tragedies were performed ● Florentine Camerata: association of intellectuals hosted by Count Bardi at his academy where scholars discussed literature, science, and the arts and musicians performed new music. ● People associated with Camerata: Girolamo Mei→ concluded that Greek music consisted of single melody, sung by soloist or chorus with or w/o accompaniment and shared his ideas with colleagues in Florence. ● Vincenzo Galilei used Mei’s doctrines to attack vocal counterpoint→ only a single line of melody could express a given line of poetry, while multiple voices were like a chaotic mess messing with the message of the text. Advocated for monody: soloistic singing with accompaniment. ● Early operas: Jacopi Peri’s L’Euridice (1600) & Claudio Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo (1607) ● First public opera house: Teatro San Cassiano (1637) What is an oratorio What is the difference between oratorio and opera When in the liturgical year would you have been likely to hear each during the seventeenth century Describe the plot of Carissimi’s Jephte, and contrast it to the plot of one opera we have studied this semester. ● Oratorio: Religious, unstaged dramatic music, different from Operas, which are staged grandly with costumes. ● Most common during Lent, because Operas were forbidden for religious reasons during Lent. ● Common themes of Oratorios, since they are usually performed during Lent, emphasis themes of Lenten suffering and obedience to God. ● Carissimi’s Jephte retells a biblical story from the Book of Judges where Jephtha, the military leader of the Israelites is forced to sacrifice his daughter because of a promise he made to God if he returned home victorious from battle with the Ammonites. ● Whereas Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo retells the tragic myth of Orfeo attempting to retrieve the love of his life, Euridice, from the Underworld and failing to have faith. (secular subject) Describe musical life in France at Versailles, under the reign of Louis XIV. ● Built Versailles to keep nobles from interfering in politics and to monitor them. Kept them busy with court etiquette, entertainment, and ceremonies. Also, Versailles was a symbol of Louis’ power ● As a result, distinctive French genres emerged: court ballet, French opera, etc… ● court ballet: musicaldramatic worked, staged with costumes ● first model for modern orchestra → large ensemble of violin family ● French ouverture: marks entry of king ● Dance reinforced the state by offering a model of discipline, order, refinement, etc… Required aristocrats to participate in social dancing and ballet performances to keep them busy and provided structure of social hierarchy, with king on top ● French Baroque music centered on refined, elegant, and restrained dance, compared to Italian music concentrated on individuality and showmanship. Be prepared to explain how the following musical forms are put together, using an example of a piece to talk through them: binary form, French overture, da capo aria. ● Binary Form: AB where A: (IV) and B: (XchordI) Widely used for dance style instrumental music EX: ElisabethClaude Jaquet de la Guerre’s Suite No. 3 in A minor. ● French overture: Two sections, each played twice in which the first section is homophonic, slow and “majestic,” followed by a faster, second section that usually begins with a fugallike imitation before ending in the style of the first section (not quite ternary form). EX: JeanBaptiste Lully’s Armide, ouverture. ● Da Capo Aria: Overall takes a ternary form (ABA) In which the A section is broken into two stanzas separated (or at least introduced by) an instrumental ritornello. The B section enters a new key and lack the ritonellos of the A section to give it contrast before we return to the A section, possibly embellished. EX: Alessandro Scarlatti’s Clori Vezzosa, e bella. How did the sonata change over the course of the seventeenth century What was a sonata like in the time of Marini What were two main types of sonata by around 1660 What was a typical sonata like for Corelli ● Sonata in Marini’s time had rhythmic themes, scored for 1 or 2 instruments with mass continuo, imitated expressive vocal style. ● The two main types of sonatas around 1660s were sonata de chiesa and sonata da camera ● sonata de chiesa: church sonata, abstract movements. Often included one or more dance rhythms/binary form. Could substitute in church service in Mass proper ● sonata da camera: chamber sonata. Series of stylized dances, often begins with with prelude. ● Corelli’s sonatas tend to be based on a single subject/theme with connections between movements. His music is tonal and marked with sense of direction. Please make sure to review your assignment sheets! Additionally, you may find the lists below helpful: Terms : (know what these are and how they relate to the larger narratives of music history in the Baroque period; be prepared to answer questions about them or to use these terms in your short essays) Baroque affections prima pratica seconda pratica L’Artusi overo Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica (or English title) criticized Monteverdi’s madrigal for breaking the traditional rules of counterpoint basso continuo figured bass realization stile concitato stile concertatosacred concerto cadenza opera libretto pastoral drama madrigal intermedio La pellegrina (and its date and context) Dialogo della musica antica et della moderna Florentine Camerata monody solo madrigal Teatro San Cassiano St. Mark’s impresario basso ostinato concerted madrigal lament bass cantata stile antico stile moderno oratorio toccata ricercare sonata passacaglia and chaconne organ mass dance suite ballet de cour Vingtquatre Violons du Roi tragédie lyrique divertissement French overture notes inégales overdotting agréments clavecin style brisébinary form prelude allemande courante sarabande gigue da capo aria sonata da camera sonata da chiesa trio sonata walking bass concerto concerto grosso collegium musicum People : (know who they are, roughly when and where they lived, and why they are important to music history; again, be prepared to answer questions about them or discuss their importance in your short essays) Claudio Monteverdi Ottavio Rinuccini Cardinal Mazarin Giulio Cesare Giovanni de’ Bardi Luigi Rossi Monteverdi Girolamo Mei JeanBaptiste Lully Giovanni Maria Artusi Vincenzo Galilei JeanPhilippe Quinault Gioseffo Zarlino Francesco Gonzaga John Blow Jacopo Peri Francesco Cavalli Henry Purcell Emilio de’ Cavalieri Louis XIV Antonio Stradivarius