One of the ways in which doctors try to determine how long a single dose of pain reliever will provide relief is to measure the drug’s half-life, which is the length of time it takes for one-half of the dose to be eliminated from the body. A report of the National Institutes of Health states that the standard deviation of the half-life of the pain reliever oxycodone is σ = 1.43 hours. Assume that a sample of 25 patients is given the drug, and the sample standard deviation of the half-liveswas s = 1.5 hours. Assume the population is normally distributed. Can you conclude that the true standard deviation is greater than the value reported by the National Institutes of Health?
SOC100 Study Guide #3 Chapters 7 and 8 NOTE: The following is not meant to be a comprehensive review, but rather it highlights several topics/concepts you should be familiar with. Because of the snow day we will move Chapter 10, Gender Stratification, to the final exam. Read the vignette at the beginning of each chapter. Ch. 7. Deviance • Sociological perspectives—functional (Merton’s strain, opportunity), interactionist (labeling, medicalization of deviance, differential association, Hirschi control) conﬂict (deviance and capitalism, white collar crime) Merton’s Strain- Deviance is a result of a gab between society’s culturally deﬁned goals and the means available to achieve them Opportunity theory- Deviance is a result of a gap between society’s culturally deﬁned goals and the means available to achieve them. Strain plus illegitimate opportunity structures are available. Labeling theory- acts are deviant or criminal because they have been labeled as such The Medicalization of deviance- There is an increase of deviant acts being labled as medical conditions and being treated as so. The growing inﬂuence of psychiatry and medicine in the United states has inﬂuenced deﬁnitions of deviance. DifferentialAssociation Theory- Deviant behavior is learned in the interaction with others Hirschi Control Theory- Deviance occurs when social bonds to conventional institutions, such as the family, school, or employer are week. People will deviate if they don’t have a strong bond with an institution keeping them on track. Deviance and Capitalism- The laws ant he criminal justice system protect the power and privilege of the capitalist class. White Collar Crime- Hurt more people and are more sever than street crimes • “Applying Theory” (p. 209) Applying Theory- • Under what conditions will a norm violator be labeled as deviant Characteristics of the perpetrator, characteristics of the victim, the characteristics of the one doing the labeling, characteristics of the judge • What are some types of white collar crime Lying, cheating, stealing, freud, tax evasion • What type of people are most likely to commit white collar crime White, high class citizens who are generally higher up in countries • From the conﬂict perspective who will most likely be labeled as deviant Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo • Homicide/incarceration rates in the U.S. U.S. compared to other countries. Higher homicide rate has a positive correlation with higher incarceration rate. The United States has less than 5% of the world’s population and we have 23% of the entire world’s population in prison • “Incarceration Nation”—article on Canvas • Capital punishment—U.S. compared to other industrialized countries Compared to other industrialized countries, the United States uses capitol punishment as a punishment exponentially more than others. Even though there is no proof that this deters crime the United States uses this as a for of punishment far more often than other industrialized countries. Some others don’t even have it legalized. Ch.8 Social stratification • TheAmerican Dream The belief that if people work hard and play by the rules, they will have a chance to get ahead. Based on the assumption that people in the United States have equality of opportunity • Income & wealth distribution (& how does the U.S. experience compare to that found other industrialized and post-industrialized countries The smallest percent ofAmericans (upper class) have the most wealth and it is not evenly distributed to other classes. Compared to other post- industrialized countries this is not normal. We have a huge gap between the top 20% and the bottom 20% and other countries gap’s are not as large. • Different perspectives on stratification—functionalist vs. conflict theorist Functionalist- Inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the smooth fucntioning of society.All societies have positions that must be filled and some positions are more important than others. The most important must be filled by the most qualified people. Conflict- Inequality is a result of conflict. Differences in resources serve the interests of some and harm others. Inequality is useful only to some people, an it is not inevitable. Values and bleifs tend to be idealogical; they reflect the interests of the more powerful members of society. • The greatest inequality is found in what type of society Kuznets Curve (p. 251) • Social Classes in the U.S. How many What are the characteristics of each class Upper- upper (Capitalist) class- Gracious living Lower- upper- Gracious living and a career, church helps their career Upper- middle class- Career ,, more in debt Average- middle- Respectability— church goers for religious reasons, moral value, volunteering, credit cards Working class- Get by, more manual labor, plateauing careers and less education than middle class Lower class- Living on the edge of apathy, pay check to pay check or homeless, not healthy at all • What is the New Class society (i.e., the PowerPoint slide with two diamonds) How does it differ from Macionis’classes What percentages are in the upper and lower diamonds There is a continuously growing gap between the lowest and the highest. The high income diamond is 20% and the lower income diamond is 80%. They differ from the other class structure because their names and values differ in how they are treated in the world and what they do. • What has happened to family income over the past 60 years Have families in all quintiles benefited equally during the past 30 years Family income has become way more spread out. Meaning that the upper class continues to get richer and the poor continue to get poorer. Not all families have benefited. • Poverty Kinds Rate Who’s to blame for the high poverty rate Are we similar or different from other countries regarding who we blame for poverty Relative poverty- the deprivation of some people in relations to those with more Absolute poverty- a deprivation of resources or inability to afford minimum standards of food, clothing, shelter, and health Blame the poor- The poor are responsible for their own poverty Blame society- society is primarily responsible for poverty We are different from other countries because we blame the individual compared to other counties who blame society. • Who are the poor What is the cure for poverty Under 18 and over 65 years of age. Minorities tend to be more in poverty. More women who are head of the household are in poverty compared to men head of household. • Who benefits most from government subsidies The upper and middle class • What are the reasons for our decline in upward mobility in the U.S. Read “What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility” article on Canvas - Question: Crime differs from deviance in that crime • Answer- is a violation of norms enacted into law - Question:Arecent study in an English maximum security prison found that inmates who ate large amounts of potato chips were most likely to be aggressive. This supports the paradigm • Answer- Physiological - Question: What percent of the students in the clicker question about the support of marajuana Answer: 60% support it • - Question: “Honey, better take all the beautiful vases off the coffee table. Two- year old Ben is coming over this afternoon and will probably destroy them.” What perspective best explains the phenomenon • Answer: Opportunity Theory - Question: “Beth be sure to be home from the party by 9pm. You know what type of people stay up until 10pm. This supports ____ theory. • Answer: Differential association theory - You’re most likely to become the victim of fraud if you belong to which demographic group - Answer- People over 50 - Question-According to the most recent government survey, which type of scam now lures the most victims Answer- Credit related scams • - White collar crimes are more severe and harm more people than street crimes - How does the homicide rate in the U.s. compare to other technologically advanced countries • Answer- it’s much higher - Question- Social inequality is greatest in ___ societies. • Answer- Agrarian (agricultural) - Question- The gab between the rich and the poor is greatest in which of the following • Answer- United States - Over 2/3 of the class grew up in the middle class - 20 years from now, 80% see themselves in the middle class - Question- Emily and her husband, Mark, are high school teachers, volunteer every weekend at the homeless shelter, and are very religious. They are probably members of the ____ • Answer- Average- middle class - Question- Who does the government spend more on: • Answer- Health care for the richest 10% of elderly medicare beneﬁciaries - Question- Government housing subsidies end up going___ • Answer-more to the middle class than the poor