Show that 3x4 + 1 is O(x4/2) and x4/2 is O(3x4 + 1).
FILM 2700: History of Motion Pictures Study Guide Know These Terms: The Jazz Singer (1927) is a 1927 American musical film. The first featurelength motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences, its release heralded the commercial ascendance of the "talkies” and the decline of the silent film era. Although it was not the first Vitaphone (sound ondisk) feature, it was the first featurelength Hollywood "talkie" film in which spoken dialogue was used as part of the dramatic action. It is, however, only parttalkie (25%) with sound synchronized, vocal musical numbers and accompaniment. synchronized sound motionpicture film with sound effects and dialogue recorded on it early problems and innovations in sound technology including restricted markets for English language talkies. Many Hollywood actors/actresses lacked good voices and stage experience, and their marketability decreased. Technically, camera movements were restricted, and noisy, bulky movie cameras had to be housed in clumsy, huge soundinsulated booths with blimps (sound proof covers), to avoid picking up camera noise on the soundtrack. Another process called Kinemacolor used a movie camera and projector that both exposed and projected black and white film through alternating red and green filters. In 1915, the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Comstock, and Burton Westcott to develop a more advanced system to colorize motion pictures. In 1922, the Hollywood studios formed the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) a trade organization to lobby politicians, selfregulate the industry, and to counter negative publicity from a rash of scandals (e.g., the infamous Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle rape/murder case in September, 1921, and Mabel Normand's three criminal cases one involving the murder of lovermillionaire William Desmond Taylor in 1922), and other mysterious events. The MPPDA's main purpose was to reshape the industry's public image, to settle issues or common problems, and to keep the industry afloat amidst growing concern to shut it down. Busby Berkeley & Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933) s a PreCode Warner Bros. musical film directed by Mervyn LeRoy with songs by Harry Warren (music) and Al Dubin (lyrics), staged and choreographed by Busby Berkeley. technological innovations of the 1930s Steamboat Willie (1928) is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in blackandwhite by Walt Disney Studios and was released by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey Mouse and his girlfriend Minnie. is especially notable for being the first Disney cartoon with synchronized sound, including character sounds and a musical score. Disney understood from early on that synchronized sound was the future of film. It was the first cartoon to feature a fully post produced soundtrack. Screwball comedies launched in the mid1930s, and established their place after the advent of film sound and the social disturbances of the Depression. Anarchic tone or irreverent view of domestic or romantic conflicts ('battles of the sexes'), and usually aimed their barbs at the leisureupper class. Bringing Up Baby (1938) is a 1938 American screwball comedy film directed by Howard Hawks, starring Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant, and released by RKO Radio Pictures. The film tells the story of a paleontologist in a number of predicaments involving a scatterbrained woman and a leopard named Baby. Hollywood’s “Golden Age” y the 1930s, Hollywood was one of the most visible businesses in America, and most people were attending films at least once a week. With better sound and film technology emerging, the industry was able to pursue new creative directions, entering a “Golden Age” of creativity and exploration. Although partly fettered by censorship, the film industry attracted audiences with strong narratives involving romantic characters struggling to overcome heavy odds. Products of the Golden Age include a long list of what are today seen as classics — The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, Stagecoach, studio system a method of film production and distribution dominated by a small number of "major" studios in Hollywood. The studio system was challenged under the antitrust laws in a 1948 Supreme Court ruling which sought to separate production from the distribution and exhibition and ended such practices, thereby hastening the end of the studio system. By 1954, with television competing for audience and the last of the operational links between a major production studio and theater chain broken, the historic era of the studio system was over. house styleart house film is typically independentlyproduced, outside of the major film studio system. Major studios are reluctant to pour money into projects which are unlikely to return a profit due to the limited – often niche market Classical Hollywood StyleClassical Hollywood cinema, classical Hollywood narrative, and classical continuity are terms used in film criticism which designate both a narrative and visual style of filmmaking which developed in and characterized American cinema between 1917 and 1960 and would become the dominant mode of filmmaking in the US. continuity editinggives the viewer the impression that the action unfolds with spatiotemporal consistency. In most films, logical coherence is achieved by cutting to continuity, which emphasizes smooth transition of time and space. symptomatic meaninga meaning that shows the significance of a film based on its historical and social context. Casablanca (1942) The story of political and romantic espionage is set against the backdrop of the wartime conflict between democracy and totalitarianism. Sells exit fees to people want to escape the war.) Privelging audience point of view, starts off on the outside of the café then slowly we enter into the café and showing us around the place. Gives us a sense of atmosphere, space. Foreshadowing about rick, First shot of rick signing a check and smoking a cigar. genre conventions Most genres have elements that the audience expects as they have been used many times in previous films from their genre/sub genre. The conventions of a film in the horror genre are: Either a dark isolated setting forest/abanded building. Western iconography Stagecoach, Southern Gentlemen Mercenaries, Homestead. Also include Native American, does not speak Part of nature White males are the individuals that implements change, women protect the home, or sometime get pregnant and take care of the baby. John Ford, Stage Coach (1939) Stagecoach was the first of many Westerns that Ford shot using Moument valley, in the American southwest on the Arizona, Utah border, as a location, many of which also starred John Wayne. Scenes from Stagecoach, including a famous sequence introducing John Wayne's character the Ringo Kid, blended shots of Monument Valley with shots filmed on the Iverson movie ranch Chitsworth, CA and other locations. film noiris a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly such that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. the production code administration (PCA) was established by the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) in 1934 to enforce the Motion Picture Production Code. The PCA required all filmmakers to submit their films for approval before release. Double Indemnity (1944) The term double indemity refers to a clause in certain life insurance policies that doubles the payout in cases when death is caused while riding a railway or other public transport means. Double Indemnity is a 1944 American film noir directed billy wilder. However, he cannot get her out of his mind, and when Phyllis shows up at his own home, he cannot resist her any longer. Neff knows all the tricks of his trade and devises a plan to make the murder of her husband appear to be an accidental fall from a train that will trigger the "double indemnity" clause and pay out twice the policy's face value. Sigmund Freud & psychoanalysis Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. social problem films is a narrative film that integrates a larger social conflict into the individual conflict between its characters. Like many film genres the exact definition is often in the eye of the beholder, but Hollywood did produce and market a number of topical films in the 1930s and by the 1940s, the term "social problem" or "message" film was conventional in its usage among the film industry and the public. On the Waterfront (1954) The political and criminal context of the film's background and history are extremely important. The similarity between Terry Malloy's whistleblowing testimony against his own corrupt group paralleled director Elia Kazan's selfjustifying admissions before the House UnAmerican Activities Commission (HUAC) two years earlier (in 1952) as a 'friendly' witness regarding his onetime membership in the Communist party. a part drama and part gangster film. The authenticlooking, powerful film is concerned with the problems of trade unionism, corruption and racketeering. And it is set on New York's oppressive waterfront docks, where dock workers struggled for work, dignity, and to make ends meet under the control of hardknuckled, mobrun labor unions that would force them to submit to daily 'shapeups' by cruel hiring bosses. Marlon Brando, method acting popularized the Method style of performing, which stripped away grandiose theatricality in favor of a deeper psychological approach to inhabiting a character. Strasberg's method is based upon the idea that in order to develop an emotional and cognitive understanding of their roles, actors should use their own experiences to identify personally with their characters. The method uses techniques to reproduce the character's emotional state by recalling emotions or sensations from the actor's own life. Marlon Brando, Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor, film director, and activist. He is hailed for bringing a gripping realism to film acting and is often cited as one of the greatest and most influential actors of all time. He is also credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, today more commonly referred to as method acting. Sidney Poitier, The Defiant Ones (1958) is a 1958 black and white film noir film which tells the story of two escaped prisoners, one white and one black, who are shackled together and who must cooperate in order to survive. The setting is in the American South, the men are the black Noah Cullen (Poitier) and the white John "Joker" Jackson (Curtis). Despite their mutual loathing, they are forced to cooperate, as they are chained together. At first their cooperation is motivated by selfpreservation but gradually, they begin to respect and like each other. SP AA actor (1960’s) broke into film. He has really high moral standards. Classical actor, encouraged integration of all races. youth rebellion films teasing becomes torture Elvis Presley, Rock ‘n RollAfter graduating from high school in 1953, an 18yearold Presley visited the Memphis Recording Service also the home of Sun Records to record his voice. Owner/producer Sam Phillips was struck by the plaintive emotion in Presley’s vocals and subsequently teamed him with guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black. In July 1954 the trio worked up “That’s All Right” and “Blue Moon of Kentucky” blues and country songs, respectively in a crackling, up tempo style that stands as the blueprint for rock and roll. juvenile delinquency Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. James Dean, Rebel without a Cause (Nicholas Ray, 1955) is a 1955 American drama film about emotionally confused suburban, middleclass teenagers filmed in Cinema Scope. Directed by Nicholas Ray, it offered both social commentary and an alternative to previous films depicting delinquents in urban slum environments. changes in exhibition in 1960 Hollywood's mid1950s commitment to color and wide screen processes meant that exhibitors were strongly encouraged to invest in another costly technological upgrading of projectors, screens, and sound equipment. At the same time, the film audience through the 1950s and 1960s became progressively younger and more male than had previously been the case. Driveins came to form a key part of the larger exhibition market, even as the industry suffered continuing effects from the rise of commercial television as a readily available source of entertainment in the home. By the mid1960s it was commonplace for new films to move relatively quickly to prime time television after they had completed their theatrical runs. Even with poor quality sound, panned andscanned images, and commercial interruptions, movies drew large audiences on American network television. By the end of the 1960s With the emergence and widespread diffusion of cable and satellite networks, videocassettes, and DVDs, watching movies no longer necessarily meant going to the movies. One result was that the second and thirdrun theaters that had been so important during the first half of the twentieth century disappeared, leaving the theatrical exhibition business overwhelmingly dependent on firstrun venues. By the mid1960s it was commonplace for new films to move relatively quickly to prime time television after they had completed their theatrical runs. Even with poor quality sound, panned andscanned images (that is, widescreen films cropped to fit the dimensions of the TV screen), and commercial interruptions, movies drew large audiences on American network television. By the end of the 1960s the precedent had been firmly set for later developments of the television set as "home [movie] theater." With the emergence and widespread diffusion of cable and sattelite networks, videocassettes, and DVDs, watching movies no longer necessarily meant going to the movies. One result was that the second and thirdrun theaters that had been so important during the first half of the twentieth century disappeared, leaving the theatrical exhibition business overwhelmingly dependent on firstrun venues. postwar challenges to the studio system The postwar period was the age of America's Second Red Scare and people started fearing that the entertainment industry was being infiltrated and turned into a Communist Propaganda Machine by leftists and Soviet sympathizers. A widelyvarying (depending on the source) number of screenwriters, actors, and directors with suspect political views suddenly found their careers in the American film industry yanked out from under them in The Hollywood Blacklist of The Fifties. Another 151 people were named by the rightwing pamphlet Red Channels, published by the antiCommunist group AWARE, as Communist subversives; these people likewise found themselves effectively barred from working in film, radio, or television. HUAC hearings House UnAmerican Activities Committee. The House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. 1948 Paramount decisionThe federal government's case, filed in 1938, was settled with a consent decree in 1940, which allowed the government to reinstate the lawsuit if, in three years' time, it had not seen a satisfactory level of compliance. Among other requirements, the consent decree included the following conditions: 1. The Big Five studios could no longer blockbook short film subjects along with feature films(known as oneshot, or full force, block booking; 2. the Big Five studios could continue to blockbook features, but the block size would be limited to five films; 3. (3) blind buying (buying of films by theater districts without seeing films beforehand) would now be outlawed and replaced with "trade showing," special screenings every two weeks at which representatives of all 31 theater districts in the United States could see films before they decided to book a film; and 4. the creation of an administration board to enforce these requirements The film industry did not satisfactorily meet the requirements of the consent decree, forcing the government to reinstate the lawsuit—as promised—three years later, in 1943. The case went to trial—with now all of the Big Eight as defendants—on October 8, 1945, one month and six days after the end of World War II. The case reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1948. The verdict went against the movie studios, forcing all of them to divest themselves of their movie theater chains. Cinemascope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, for shooting widescreen movies. Its creation in 1953 by Spyros P. Skouras, the president of 20th Century Fox, marked the beginning of the modern anamorphic format in both principal photography and movie projection. stereophonic sound Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multidirectional audible perspective. The Tingler (1959) is a horrorthriller film by William Castle. The film tells the story of a scientist who discovers a parasite in human beings, called a "Tingler", which feeds on fear. The creature earned its name by making the spine of its host "tingle" when the host is frightened. In line with other Castle horror films, including the 1958 Macabre and 1959 House on Haunted Hill Castle used gimmicks to sell the film. The Tingler remains most well known for a gimmick called "Percepto!", vibrating devices in some theater chairs which activated with the onscreen action. driveins he drivein's peak popularity came in the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly in rural areas, with some 4,000 driveins spread across the United States.Among its advantages was the fact that a family with a baby could take care of their child while watching a movie, while teenagers with access to autos found driveins ideal for dates. Revenue is more limited than regular theaters since showings can only begin at twilight. There were abortive attempts to create suitable conditions for daylight viewing such as large tent structures, but nothing viable was developed. B movies is a lowbudget commercial motion picture that is not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more precisely identified a film intended for distribution as the lesspublicized, bottom half of a double feature. 1950s science fictionn more creature features, parasitic alien seed pods threatened to duplicate and transplant themselves as emotionless human clones in a hostile takeover of the small California town of Santa Mira, in Don Siegel's suspenseful and brilliant film . It was a perfect postMcCarthy era film from a story by scifi writer Jack Finney about the threat of Communist infiltration and dehumanizing brainwashing. The metaphoric film effectively exploited the Red paranoia of the 50s with chilling fright and warned about the dangers of an automaton existence with numbing conformity and mindless ap Italian neorealism also known as the Golden Age of Italian Cinema, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using nonprofessional actors. The Bicycle Thief (1948) s a 1948 Italian film directed by Vittorio De Sica. The film follows the story of a poor father searching postWorld War II Rome for his stolen bicycle, without which he will lose the job which was to be the salvation of his young family. Akiro Kurosawa, Rashomon (1950) The term Rashomon effect refers to realworld situations in which multiple eyewitness testimonies of an event contain conflicting information. here is a series of single closeups of the bandit, then the wife, and then the husband, which then repeats to emphasize the triangular relationship between them Use of contrasting shots is another example of the film techniques used in Rashomon. According to Donald Richie, the length of time of the shots of the wife and of the bandit are the same when the bandit is acting barbarically and the wife is hysterically crazy Rashomon had camera shots that were directly into the sun. Kurosawa wanted to use natural light, but it was too weak; they solved the problem by using a mirror to reflect the natural light. The result makes the strong sunlight look as though it has traveled through the branches, hitting the actors. The rain in the scenes at the gate had to be tinted with black ink because camera lenses could not capture the water pumped through the hoses. Yasujirō Ozu, Tokyo Story (1953) is a 1953 Japanese drama film directed by Yasujirō Ozu. It tells the story of an aging couple who travel to Tokyo to visit their grown children. The film contrasts the behavior of their children, who are too busy to pay them much attention, and their widowed daughterinlaw, who treats them with kindness. French New Wave is a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s. Cahiers du Cinéma s a French language film magazine founded in 1951 by Andre Bazin, Jacques DoniolValcroze and JosephMarie Lo Duca. It developed from the earlier magazine Revue du Cinéma involving members of two Paris film clubs—Objectif 49 (Objective 49) (Robert Bresson, Jean Cocteau and Alexandre Astruc, among others) and CinéClub du Quartier Latin (Cinema Club of the Latin Quarter). Initially edited by DoniolValcroze and, after 1957, by Éric Rohmer (Maurice Scherer), it included amongst its writers Jacques Rivette, JeanLuc Godard, Claude Chabrol and François Truffaut auteur theory which was derived largely from Astruc's elucidation of the concept of caméra stylo (“camerapen”), holds that the director, who oversees all audio and visual elements of the motion picture, is more to be considered the “author” of the movie than is the writer of the screenplay. François Truffaut, The 400 Blows (1959) is a 1959 French drama film, the debut by director François Truffaut; it stars JeanPierre Léaud,Albert Rémy, and Claire Maurier. One of the defining films of the French New Wave, it displays many of the characteristic traits of the movement. Written by Truffaut and Marcel Moussy, the film is about Antoine Doinel, a misunderstood adolescent in Paris who is thought by his parents and teachers to be a troublemaker. Filmed on location in Paris and Honfleur, it is the first in a series of five films in which Léaud plays the semiautobiographical character. JeanLuc Godard, Breathless (1960) a 1960 French film written and directed by JeanLuc Godard about a wandering criminal (JeanPaul Belmondo) and his American girlfriend (Jean Seberg)