Two piers, A and B, are located on a river; B is 1500 m downstream from A (?Fig. E3.32?). Two friends must make round trips from pier A to pier B and return. One rows a boat at a constant speed of 4.00 km/h relative to the water; the other walks on the shore at a constant speed of 4.00 km/h. The velocity of the river is 2.80 km/h in the direction from A to B. How much time does it take each person to make the round trip?
Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Social Stratification What is America Land of Opportunity o Can anyone become rich o Are all jobs open and equal for everyone Social Class can be achieved o Do Americans decide which class they belong to Horatio Alger: rags to riches o Work hard and you will achieve Social Stratification Social stratification is defined as a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy These categories lead to patterned social inequality—the unequal sharing of resources and social rewards Stratification persists because it is backed up by an ideology Principles of Stratification It is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences It persists over generations It is universal but variable It involves not just inequalities but also beliefs Social Inequality Saying that inequality is patterned indicates that the differences occur: o On a wide-scale basis o With regularity o And along lines of certain specific, identifiable characteristics (e.g. race, class, and gender) Social inequality is a structured and systematic phenomenon. Dimensions of Social Stratification/Inequality Max Weber Wealth: the accumulation of economic resources Power: the ability to impose one’s will on others Prestige: the respect given by others These dimensions can be interrelated or operate independently. Types of Societies Egalitarian — few or no groups have greater access to more wealth, power, or prestige Rank — unequal access to prestige or status, but no unequal access to wealth or power Stratified societies — considerable inequality in all forms of social rewards (power, wealth, and prestige) o Class system: social stratification is based on individual achievement Social mobility Achieved status o Caste system: social stratification is based in ascription (from birth and lasts throughout one’s lifetime). Limited or no social mobility Ascribed status ______________________________________________________________________________ Friday, April 1, 2016 Social Stratification Caste systems shape people’s lives in for crucial ways: Powerful cultural beliefs underlie caste systems Determines occupation Mandates endogamy Limits outgroup social contacts Race and Ethnicity Race — classification based on physical traits. o Race is social construction: people interpret physical differences which are endowed with social meaning. Ethnicity — classification based on cultural characteristics. Prejudice is an attitude, which predisposes an individual to prejudge entire categories of people unfairly. Discrimination is a behavior, or and the unfair and harmful treatment of people based on their group membership Racism is the belief that race determines human ability and as a result, certain races deserve to be treated as inferior while other races deserve to be treated as superior Institutional (prejudice, discrimination and racism): integral part of the social practices and institutions of a society. Intergroup Relations Pluralism Assimilation Legal protection of minorities Population transfer Long-term subjugation Genocide Social Stratification: Theories Functionalist (Conservative Perspective) o Social inequality exists because it is necessary for the maintenance of society o “it serves as a mechanism for allocating rewards and motivating the best people to fill the key jobs in the society.” Conflict (Liberal Perspective) o Explains social inequality as the result of benefits derived by the upper classes using their power and privilege to exploit those below them. Conflict Theory Bourgeoisie o Karl Marx’s term referring to the middle class (those who own the means of production) Proletariat o The term used in conflict theories of social stratification to describe the working class who exchange their labor for wages. Inequality in the United States Us society is highly stratified, but many people underestimate the extent og structured inequality in US society Question: How is inequality structured Question: What kind of traits/dimensions interact to produce a person’s place in society, the manner in which people are treated, and their self identity Intersectionality and Inequalities Connected You are not unequal just because you are a woman, or because you are black; there is other things you need to take into account when you study people that are marginalized.