An elevator is moving upward at a constant speed of 2.50 m/s. A bolt in the elevator ceiling 3.00 m above the elevator floor works loose and falls. (a) How long does it take for the bolt to fall to the elevator floor? What is the speed of the bolt just as it hits the elevator floor (b) according to an observer in the elevator? (c) According to an observer standing on one of the floor landings of the building? (d) According to the observer in part (c), what distance did the bolt travel between the ceiling and the floor of the elevator?
History of Photography TEST 2: Study Guide THINGS TO KNOW TEST 2: Study Guide • Cubism: Objects are broken up and resembled in abstract form. The artist depicts a number of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context • Constructivism: theory of knowledge arguing that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and ideas • Dadaism: early 20th cent at movement in the waning years of WWI. Dwelled on fragmentary- the incomplete and instilled their work • Bauhaus: art school in Germany that combined crafts and ﬁne arts. Famous for its approach to design that it publicized and taught. operated from 1919-1931 • Surrealism: 20th cent avant-garde movement in art and literature that sough to release creative potential of the unconscious mind. • Modernism: moment in the arts that aims to break the classical and traditional forms • Precisionism: describes paintings depicting speciﬁcally american building types in a near abstract manner that stresses geometric form. Themes included industrialization and modernization of the american landscape, which were depicted in precise, sharply deﬁned, geometrical forms. Term is mostly used in the ﬁeld of painting. Mostly construction and machinery • Photomontage: a technique popular with experimental artists and photographers after WWI. Images from sources as advertising and newspapers were cut and reassembled to form composite images. The ﬁnal product might be photographed or prepared for mechanical reproduction • New Vision: Climate of Experimentation which included movements in Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, German Bauhaus, and Russian Constructivism. • Photo Secession: Founded in 1902 by Stieglitz and Steichan and Strand to advance photography as a n art form as applied to pictorial expression. / brings together practicing photographers or people who are interested in the art form. Members included F Holland Day, Steichen, Clarence H White, Kasebeir, Boughton, Stieglitz, and Steichan. • F64: dismissed pictorials despite the fact that several of its members had practiced it. Urged the exploration of the camera vision. Formed in the 20’s in California and was created by Willard Van dyke and Ansel Adams, but also included Edward Weston and Imogene Cunningham. • Pictorialism • Emphasizes nostalgia, and soft focus in a an attempt to bring photography forth as an art form. • photography should be concerned with beauty rather than fact. • Shapes and replicative aspects of photography as limitations. • Accepted manipulation of photographic print. • Artistic photographs should be considered equivalent as other mediums, rendering things not as a copy, but in an artful way. • soft focus, apparent hand manipulation of the photo aimed to give the photograph a painterly effect • Amateurs of photography misunderstood Emerson, moving away from faithful depiction toward a more evocative and expressive form • infused Fog and shadow • Aimed for tonal complexity • Frequently printed on textured paper to evoke watercolor • Peach’s views become more popular SLIDE IDENTIFICA TION TEST 2: Study Guide Edward Steichen, Flatiron, 1904 • Medium: • Date: 1904 • Country: US • this picture is a prime example of the conscious effort of photographers in the circle of Alfred Stieglitz to assert the artistic potential of their medium. •Stieglitz was looking for a counterpart and T eichen was a great photographer and painter and curator Clarence White, Morning, 1908 • Medium: • Date:1908 • Country: US •atmospheric photos teacher at Colombia • •Started his own photography school •Gazing balls - Ball is reminiscent of art history, a look into another spiritual realm •Theatrical Gertrude Kasebier , Blessed Art Thou Among W omen, 1889 • Medium: • Date: 1889 • Country: US •An exquisite description of the Victorian ideals of motherhood and femininity, reinforced by the biblical title and the print of the Annunciation on the wall behind the ﬁgures, the photograph also evokes the idyllic domesticity of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Stieglitz published the photograph in Camera Notes (July 1900) and in the ﬁrst issue of Camera Work (January 1903), which was devoted to Käsebier’s work. •photographer of native americans went to Pratt institute and comes friends with Stieglitz stiechen and •strand •mimics religious paintings •pushing her child out into the world while her child seems stiff ad taken back •black dress leaves the status of the child •Child looks taken back by entering the world Paul Strand, W all Street, 1915 • Medium: • Date: 1915 • Country: US Straight Photography • - No manipulation of the Image and in Focus •Stieglitz wrote that his work was direct and devoid of trickery •Ominous and eerie evil looming in the dark windows •1914-1916: Movement in New York - Reveal a city where the physical environment was as alive as the people within it •Begins to show us strong formal concerns Erich Salomon, Hague Conference, 1930 • Medium: • Date: 1930 • Country: Netherlands -Candid photojournalist -Gave audiences the right to see behind the curtain of important political events El Lissitzky , The Constructor, 1924 • Medium: • Date: 1924 • Country: Russia • The essence of New Vision photography is pointedly expressed in this picture, commonly known as The Constructor, which puts the act of seeing at center stage. Lissitzky's hand, holding a compass, is superimposed on a shot of his head that explicitly highlights his eye: insight, it expresses, is passed through the eye and transmitted to the hand, and through it to the tools of production. Devised from six different exposures, the picture merges Lissitzky's personae as photographer (eye) and constructor of images (hand) into a single likeness. Contesting the idea that straight photography provides a single, unmediated truth, Lissitzky held instead that montage, with its layering of one meaning over another, impels the viewer to reconsider the world. It thus marks a conceptual shift in the understanding of what a picture can be. • Was an architect designer ad photographer • Believed the artist could be a tool of change • Layering his hand and eye on top of graph paper • XYZ reference to the lis of a grid Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage, 1907 • Medium: • Date: 1907 • Country: US • As proprietor of the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession and publisher of the photographic journals Camera Notes and Camera Work, Alfred Stieglitz was a major force in the promotion and elevation of photography as a ﬁne art in America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Steerage is considered Stieglitz's signature work, and was proclaimed by the artist and illustrated in histories of the medium as his ﬁrst "modernist" photograph. It marks Stieglitz's transition away from painterly prints of Symbolist subjects to a more straightforward depiction of quotidian life. • The Steerage began its life as a masterpiece four years after its creation, with Stieglitz's publication of it in a 1911 issue of Camera Work devoted exclusively to his photographs in the "new" style, together with a Cubist drawing by Picasso. Stieglitz loved to recount how the great painter had praised the collage like dispersal of forms and shifting depths of The Steerage. Canonized retroactively, the photograph allowed Stieglitz to put his chosen medium on par with the experimental European painting and sculpture he imported and exhibited so presciently at his gallery. In 1915, he lavishly reprinted the image in large-scale photogravure on both vellum and Japanese paper for inclusion in his last magazine, 291. • A ship leaving the US going to Europe • Separation of classes (done by the bridge) • starts to see shapes forming • People on the bottom are common people, not dressed fancily and they looked weathered • Focused on shapes, the hat, and suspenders • Could be anyone • of that era Imogene Cunningham, Irene “Bobby” Libarry , from her book After Ninety • Medium: • Date: 1979 • Country: US • Sharp focus and high detail • photographed elderly with respect Frances Benjamin Johnston, Self Portrait of a New W oman • Medium: • Date: 1896 • Country: US - manly pose - character study of what women of that era could be Charles Sheeler , Industry, 1932 • Medium: • Date: 1932 • Country: US • giving a perspective of an all encompassing • details in the shadows • worked photographing the Ford Motor Plant • ﬁlling the frame Lewis Hine, Child in a Carolina Cotton Mill • Medium: • Date: 1908 • Country: US, South Carolina teacher to Paul strand • • Made photos of Immigrants arriving at ellis island • Immigrants living in poor neighborhoods • NCLC and other social welfare organizations • 1907-1918 took 5,000 images of child labor around the US • Very active and shed light on the issues with child labor • Machinery is much larger than the children • Given a name in the title makes it more personal and more real • His photos were instrumental in changing the child labor laws of the US - Reform Photography • Photography was used as a form of documentation • audience came the mass readers of newspapers magazines and books • Each photographer used photography to effect social change André Kertész, Distortion • Medium: • Date: 1933 • Country: France • photographer known for his groundbreaking contributions to photographic composition and the photo essay. August Sander , Boxers Paul Roderstein and Hein Heese • Medium: • Date: 1929 • Country: Germany • German photographer who is important and inﬂuenced many • Centered his subjects • Subjects stand out against a plain background Horst P . Horst, Untitled, 1936 • Medium: • Date: 1936 • Country: Germany/ US • taught by Huene and has similar work • uses women as sculpture • Overlapping planes • using cubist functionality in his photographs • Theatrical Edward W eston, Excusado • Medium: • Date: 1925 • Country: Mexico • different perspective than we are used to • Shadow gives detail to the ﬂoor • one of the founding members of f64 • kept a diary that recorded the struggle to understand himself, society, and the medium Alfred Stieglitz, Equivalent • Medium: • Date: 1930 • Country: US J.H. Lartigue, My Cousin Bichonnade • Medium: • Date: 1905 • Country: France -Much of his subject matter is family -Fascinated with the fact that he could stop motion and movement with a photograph Paul Strand, Abstractions, Porch Shadows • Medium: • Date: 1916 • Country: United States - Didn’t agree with pictorialists, though he believed it could be an art form - Pictoriaism was avant guard because it stressed abstract patterns and blame the art form of the 20’s - The photographer that was featured in the last issue of Camera Work - Looking at abstract artists and trying to emulate them - Trying to make the viewer look in a 3D way using light and shadows Julia Margaret Cameron, Ophelia • Medium: • Date: 1867 • Country: England •She is the force behind artists photographers •She is the advocate for pictorials •soft focus creates a painterly feel •romanticism/ pictorialism •Airy/ Dreamlike Edward Curtis, The V anishing Race • Medium: • Date: 1904 • Country: US -Starts two studios in Seattle -JP Morgan gives him a lot of money to photograph Native Americans -Brings costumes and poses many photos -vanishing horizon representative of a vanishing people F. Holland Day , Nude Youth with Laurel Wreath Standing Against Rocks • Medium: • Date: 1907 • Country: United States -dramatic pose -Body is aggressive and exposed -Highly sexualized -Response to classical sculpture Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase • Date: 1912 • Country: France • dadaism • used art to reach a larger group • While others are creating art for political activism the US is simply creating art for arts sake Henri Cartier-Bresson, Behind the Gare St. Lazare • Medium: • Date: 1932 • Country: France Hannah Hoch, Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last W eimer Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany • Medium: • Date: 1919 • Country: Germany • Crowded Composition • Objected to War • Envisioned a new art that expressed their despair, but that would sweep away tiresome conventions and intellectual barriers Aleksandr Rodchenko, Untitled (W alking Figure) • Medium: • Date: 1928 • Country: Russia • one of the founders of Russian Constructivism • switched from photomontage to straight photography working with double exposure, angles, and disorientation, use of line and texture