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Describe a brute force algorithm for solving the discrete

Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780073383095 | Authors: Kenneth Rosen ISBN: 9780073383095 37

Solution for problem 67E Chapter 4.4

Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications | 7th Edition

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Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780073383095 | Authors: Kenneth Rosen

Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications | 7th Edition

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Problem 67E

Describe a brute force algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem and find the worst-case and average- case time complexity of this algorithm.

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 The Reconstruction Era  Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1867  Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1877  Three Elements of Reconstruction  Economic  Political  Racial  Freedmen  Aren’t slaves anymore, but aren’t necessarily citizens  Legally they are citizens, however they generally aren’t accepted as such  This problem was rooted in the purpose of the Civil War  South had just finished fighting for 4 years to protect the idea of white supremacy  White Supremacy: “The Organic Law of the Land”  White Supremacy Factors  Scientific racism  Phrenology  Crainometry  Intelligence = IQ tests  These tests were often extremely biased  Eugenics  Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest”  Laissez-faire: economics and government: allows natural order of things  Self-reliance  “Rugged individualism”  Honor  Localism  Tradition and violence flourish  New Creed of the South  Progress through uniformity  Savage Ideal  Conformity through violence  The mindset to maintain white supremacy by any means necessary  Southern Rape Complex  Sexual threat to white women  Any threat of change that a black made against the social structure was a threat to white women  There was a common stereotype that black men raped white women  This notion was not necessarily backed up by much evidence  Edgefield Policy  Savage ideal in action  Gave white men the responsibility to do whatever is necessary to maintain control in the black population  Racial Violence Lynching  1880’s-1910’s  Killing off black elected officials  Occurred once every two and a half days  Nadir: 1880-1920  Legalized discrimination every southern state by 1910  2,000 African Americans elected and appointed to office in South from 1867 to 1900  Biracial government functioned in South for a time  Blacks and black legislators had helped significantly in setting the country back on the right track, but were rewarded with discrimination  South Carolina had 39 black legislators in 1877, zero in 1900  Result of Jim Crow Laws  Whites dominated Reconstruction in almost every way  Mississippi Plan  Adopted by a state constitutional convention in 1890 in an attempt to keep blacks from voting  Attempt to circumvent 14 and 15 Amendments  Established policies like these to keep blacks from voting:  Residency requirement to vote  Poll tax: $2  Literacy test  Understanding test  Grandfather clause  Segregation  Plessy v. Ferguson 1896  Validated “Equal and separate”/separate but equal clause  Mississippi v. Williams  Validated the Mississippi Plan  3 Great Forces at the turn of the century (beginning of the 20 th century)  Industrialization  America becomes an industrial giant  Agrarian turned into industrial  Urbanization  Highest standard of living in human history  Political, economic and social power shifted from countryside to the city  Immigration  Became truly a multi-cultural, pluralistic, diverse society  Iron Age of American history  Spurred by the Civil War  Post-Civil War  Exports 3x  Population 2x  Standard of living 2x  Railroads were a key factor  Industries based in or near cities, or industrial towns  Led to large corporations and monopolies  Revolution – industrial capitalism rises to absolute power  Industry is developed in Urban Centers  Centrifugal force of industrialization expanded industrialism and the power of businessmen everywhere  The businessman vied with the cowboy as the quintessential American  The businessman overwhelmed the farmer in wealth, political power and social status  Centripetal force brought more people into centers from which power radiated – cities  Created metropolitan areas  Urban America  Industrialization created cities and gave them a new and alien character, fueled by immigration  A small percentage of the population became extremely wealthy  Population went from 6 million to 44 million  Robber Barons  Political machines and corrupt political bosses  Chaos, crime, consumption  Huge foreign-born population  Immigration  The immigration era in America was the greatest voluntary migration in human history  Pre-Civil War Immigration  British, western European, Northern European, African, Hispanic, Asia  New Immigrant stock  Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe/Russia, Asia  Religion among immigrant shifted from protestant to Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Buddhist, Confuscian  Motives for migration  Push factors  Land consolidation  Commercial farming  Industrialization  Religious and political persecution  Often applied to Russian Jews  Pull Factors  Higher wages  Higher standard of living  Better Opportunity  More freedom  Often considered to be temporary migration  The Melting Pot  Cities largely foreign-born  Ethnic enclaves developed like Little Italy, Five Points, Chinatown  Meanwhile, the countryside was populated more by native- born  Xenophobia  Fear, dislike of foreigners; often irrational  Nativism  Policy or ideology of protecting native inhabitants, indigenous culture, etc., against immigrants and foreign influence  A natural born citizen  A citizen from birth by place of birth (or by descent); doesn’t need naturalization  Native born  A person born of a citizen of the U.S.; doesn’t need naturalization  Naturalized citizen  A person who has become a US citizen as opposed to being born as a US citizen  Immigration Laws  1790: Naturalization Act  2 year residency required for all immigrants  Foreign-born free and white could become citizens  1795: Naturalization Act  Immigrants required to live in the U.S. for 5 years  “Free white persons”  1868: 14 Amendment  All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the States wherein they reside  1875: Page Act  First federal immigration law  Prohibited the entry of undesirable immigrants  Excludes all Chinese women (considered prostitutes)  Restrictive Immigration Legislation  1882: Immigration Act  Federalized immigration  50 cent Head tax  Banned “idiots, lunatics, convicts and person likely become a public charge.”  1882: Chinese Exclusion Act  1885: Contract Labor Law prohibits long term work contracts  1891: Immigration Act  Excludes communicable diseases, mental disorders  Ellis becomes official depot for first arrivals  Where the majority of immigrants now come into  1894: Immigration Restriction League formed  Prompted by ideas of Social Darwinism  Several anti-immigration bills passed in the senate  1903: Excludes radicals (socialists, communists, anarchists)  1903-1916: 13 separate legislative acts passed  1907: “Gentlemen’s Agreement”  1917: Immigration Act  Triumph of Nativism  1921: Johnson Emergency Quota Act  1910 Census  3% quota requirement on 1910 ethnic population  1924: National Origins Act  A.K.A. Johnson-Reed Immigration Act  Lowers quota to 2%  Based on 1890 census  1929  Quota increases to 150,00 (and then a few times thereafter)  Used the 1920 Census  Immigration Reform Act of 1965  A.K.A. Hart-Cellar Immigration and Nationality Act  “Placed a new emphasis on reuniting families and granting asylum to refugees, while also favoring immigrants with desired skills and ending the longstanding preference for Western Europeans.”  Abolishes most restrictions  Policies abolished:  170K immigrants in each year from Europe, Asia, Africa  No more than 20K from a single country  Preference to those whose immediate relatives are American citizens  Raised quotas slowly – from 297,000 to 850,000 (2000)  Prior to 1965:  9 of 10 immigrants from Europe and Canada  >1/2 from Asia or Latin America  Trends of the immigration era  By 1990, 45% of documented aliens came were from Asia and Middle East  Filipinos, Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese  Increased Asian population by 100% (3.5 million)  “Boat people”  Result of war in Southeast Asia (Vietnam War)  Vietnamese and Cambodian  Mostly educated  The era made the USA the most ethnically diverse society in the world  A New America  A truly pluralistic, multicultural society  Whether native born Old and New immigrant stock liked it or not  Decline of WASP dominance  White Anglo Saxon Protestant  Demonstrated by the election of 2012  In 2016, GOP candidate needs >70% of white vote to win  Immigrants often vote for Democratic candidates  In addition, 12-15 million undocumented aliens in the U.S.  Nativism  Every wave of immigration has produced nativism  Africans in the 1770s  Germans in the 1780s and 1830s  Irish in the 1840s  Essentially, all of the newest immigrants sparked some sort of nativism  Recent wave has produced this among both white and black middle class  Amnesty Act of 1986  Adopted under Ronald Reagan’s presidency  Implemented in1988  Gave amnesty to the illegal immigrants living in the U.S.  Number of unauthorized immigrants soared  5 million in 1986 (estimated) to 11.1 million today (estimated)  Key Immigration Issues  Path to citizenship – Dream Act  Enforcement of existing laws  Employers hiring illegal immigrants  Human smugglers  Employment opportunities  Social services, including health care (CHIPS)  Denying automatic citizenship to “anchor babies”  Denying access to free public education  Taxes  Walling them out  Stepping up deportation  Stop and Identify laws  In Arizona, police are allowed to stop everyone who “looks illegal”  Critics of immigration  Tom Tancredo – former Congressman from CO  “We are in a clash of civilizations…” (2006)  Samuel Huntington – Harvard professor, author of Who We Are: Challenges to America’s National Identity (2004)  “The American Creed is the unique creation of a dissenting Protestant culture.”  Both agree U.S. is a nation of immigrants; however they believe they are challenging the American identity  Factors challenging American Identity (according to Huntington)  Globalization: economic, cultural  In a world that is becoming even more globalized, how does a country continue to keep its identity  End of Cold War reduced importance of national identity  Politicizing of issue by politicians  Attempts of sub-national leaders to enhance personal and group status  Bending the Constitution “not necessarily in the ways the framers intended.” (14 Amendment)  National sympathy and guilt of academic elites for past U.S. actions  Changing views of race and ethnicity fostered by Civil Rights Revolution and reflected in Immigration Act of 1965  The Turner Thesis, the West, and American Violence  The Turner Thesis  “The frontier is the line of most rapid Americanization.”  Stated that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness, practical inventive turn of mind, and masterful grasp of material could all be attributed to the influence of the West  The epitome of the U.S.  In his eyes, the West has had a democratizing influence on the United States  Turner - The Frontier was the chief influence in shaping these aspects of American life:  Social Equality  Growth of political democracy  Nationalism  Faith in the future  Economic independence  Safety valve for factory workers  Invention  Individualism  Code of the West  Honesty, Humility, courage, loyalty and hard work  Honor: a man was only as good as his word  A man is loyal to his friends and those he rides with  “No Duty to Retreat”: imperative of self-redress  The Rugged Individualist  Mike Fink, Davey Crockett, Natty Bumpo, Ronald Reagan, George W., The Marlboro Man have all taken on the persona of this rugged individualist  “Duty to Retreat”  A command to avoid physical conflict between individuals  Intended to produce civility  Adopted in England  Not in America  “A man is not born to run away”  Right to kill in self-defense is a modern concept  “One of the most important transformations in American social history”  Criminals as heroes  Speaks to America’s fascination with criminality  Social bandit – Heroic criminals  An individual in both Western Europe and America whose crimes are viewed with approval by much society  Jesse James  America’s classic social bandit  Got a great amount of coverage in the press and was seen in a glorified light as a result  Al Capone  Mass murderer, serial killer  Glorified by society and the press  American Creed  Freedom, equality, democracy  “Violent self-assertion” can very well be added to that  No “Duty to Retreat”  American Violence  Riots  Lynching (5000 deaths since CW)  Vigilantism  Indian wars (1000 killed since CW)  Industrial (most numerous and violent labor strikes)  Civil War (620,000 death toll)  America comes to believe violence as an “entirely proper last resort to satisfy a legitimate grievance or rectify a glaring injustice.”  Localism  Slavery/race  Required violence to enforce  Ethnicity  Ethnic violence was a result of the slavery era as well as nativism  Tabula Rasa  Violence could be developed by anyone  Industrialization  Labor riots/strikes incited more violence  Modern Advertising  “Propaganda” becomes “public relations”  Coca-Cola was the first to start advertising  Prior to 1920’s, ads were dry and dull  Designed to make people aware of new products  Emphasized functionality  Tools like manipulation started to be used  Growth of advertising  Albert Lasker  “Father of Modern Advertising”  Described advertising as “salesmanship in print”  Marketed orange juice  Edward Bernays  Used psychological manipulation to engineer consent  Found most success in tobacco products  Lucky Strike  Marketed cigarettes as “torches of freedom”  Played to the “empowering” feeling that women were feeling at the time  “Tapping hidden desires and urges”  Companies also started using athletes and celebrities to promote their cause  Wheaties  Advertising in modern times:  Emphasis in individualism  John F. Kennedy’s campaign was advertised like a product  Critics of Modern Advertising  Sparks a Consumer culture  Causes false needs (“Hidden desire and urges”)  Imposes conformity  Debased taste to the lowest common denominator – what sells  Implicit rejection of high arts and civilization  Materialism  Secularization  Loss of values and standards  Emphasis on individualism  The New Woman  Wore dresses that were a radical shift from their parents  Led to the nickname “flappers”  Represented the people “flaunting the new times”  Received with much backlash by the media  Changed the ground rules for college  Women college attendance began to rapidly increase  Notable names to know  Margaret Sanger  Founded Planned Parenthood  Alice Paul  Civil Rights Activist  Florence Kelly  The significance: women were actually doing constructive and productive things in society  Wardrobe and clothing norms began to be greatly challenged  Previously, showing space in between women’s legs was greatly frowned upon in society  Sparked a Purity Crusade  Anthony Comstock  Narrow-minded bigot or champion of morality  Comstock Law  Blue Law  Birth Control use became more abundant  Mostly condoms  Number of women in the work force doubled in the 1920’s  Came with urbanization  The Great Migration  Rural to urban population shift  Mainly African-Americans  1910 – 1920  Continued well into the 1960s  51% of blacks were outside South by 1950  5 million total by 1960  Sought a “richer and fuller life”  Segregated neighborhoods  Two popular destinations for blacks: Harlem, Chicago  The Harlem Renaissance  Cultural explosion that affects all of America  A product of a “richer and fuller life”  Produces a new awareness of the black population  Similar to the New Woman, Alain Locke, the “Dean of the Harlem Renaissance,” coined the term “The New Negro”  The Great Depression eventually undermines much of the growth that takes place during this time  What the New Woman and the Harlem Renaissance represent  Modernism  A challenge to old standards and lifestyle

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Chapter 4.4, Problem 67E is Solved
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Textbook: Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
Edition: 7
Author: Kenneth Rosen
ISBN: 9780073383095

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, edition: 7. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073383095. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 67E from chapter: 4.4 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 06/21/17, 07:45AM. The answer to “Describe a brute force algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem and find the worst-case and average- case time complexity of this algorithm.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 23 words. Since the solution to 67E from 4.4 chapter was answered, more than 399 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Algorithm, Case, Discrete, average, complexity. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 101 chapters, and 4221 solutions.

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Describe a brute force algorithm for solving the discrete