Describe a brute force algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem and find the worst-case and average- case time complexity of this algorithm.
The Reconstruction Era Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1867 Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1877 Three Elements of Reconstruction Economic Political Racial Freedmen Aren’t slaves anymore, but aren’t necessarily citizens Legally they are citizens, however they generally aren’t accepted as such This problem was rooted in the purpose of the Civil War South had just finished fighting for 4 years to protect the idea of white supremacy White Supremacy: “The Organic Law of the Land” White Supremacy Factors Scientific racism Phrenology Crainometry Intelligence = IQ tests These tests were often extremely biased Eugenics Social Darwinism: “Survival of the fittest” Laissez-faire: economics and government: allows natural order of things Self-reliance “Rugged individualism” Honor Localism Tradition and violence flourish New Creed of the South Progress through uniformity Savage Ideal Conformity through violence The mindset to maintain white supremacy by any means necessary Southern Rape Complex Sexual threat to white women Any threat of change that a black made against the social structure was a threat to white women There was a common stereotype that black men raped white women This notion was not necessarily backed up by much evidence Edgefield Policy Savage ideal in action Gave white men the responsibility to do whatever is necessary to maintain control in the black population Racial Violence Lynching 1880’s-1910’s Killing off black elected officials Occurred once every two and a half days Nadir: 1880-1920 Legalized discrimination every southern state by 1910 2,000 African Americans elected and appointed to office in South from 1867 to 1900 Biracial government functioned in South for a time Blacks and black legislators had helped significantly in setting the country back on the right track, but were rewarded with discrimination South Carolina had 39 black legislators in 1877, zero in 1900 Result of Jim Crow Laws Whites dominated Reconstruction in almost every way Mississippi Plan Adopted by a state constitutional convention in 1890 in an attempt to keep blacks from voting Attempt to circumvent 14 and 15 Amendments Established policies like these to keep blacks from voting: Residency requirement to vote Poll tax: $2 Literacy test Understanding test Grandfather clause Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Validated “Equal and separate”/separate but equal clause Mississippi v. Williams Validated the Mississippi Plan 3 Great Forces at the turn of the century (beginning of the 20 th century) Industrialization America becomes an industrial giant Agrarian turned into industrial Urbanization Highest standard of living in human history Political, economic and social power shifted from countryside to the city Immigration Became truly a multi-cultural, pluralistic, diverse society Iron Age of American history Spurred by the Civil War Post-Civil War Exports 3x Population 2x Standard of living 2x Railroads were a key factor Industries based in or near cities, or industrial towns Led to large corporations and monopolies Revolution – industrial capitalism rises to absolute power Industry is developed in Urban Centers Centrifugal force of industrialization expanded industrialism and the power of businessmen everywhere The businessman vied with the cowboy as the quintessential American The businessman overwhelmed the farmer in wealth, political power and social status Centripetal force brought more people into centers from which power radiated – cities Created metropolitan areas Urban America Industrialization created cities and gave them a new and alien character, fueled by immigration A small percentage of the population became extremely wealthy Population went from 6 million to 44 million Robber Barons Political machines and corrupt political bosses Chaos, crime, consumption Huge foreign-born population Immigration The immigration era in America was the greatest voluntary migration in human history Pre-Civil War Immigration British, western European, Northern European, African, Hispanic, Asia New Immigrant stock Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe/Russia, Asia Religion among immigrant shifted from protestant to Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Buddhist, Confuscian Motives for migration Push factors Land consolidation Commercial farming Industrialization Religious and political persecution Often applied to Russian Jews Pull Factors Higher wages Higher standard of living Better Opportunity More freedom Often considered to be temporary migration The Melting Pot Cities largely foreign-born Ethnic enclaves developed like Little Italy, Five Points, Chinatown Meanwhile, the countryside was populated more by native- born Xenophobia Fear, dislike of foreigners; often irrational Nativism Policy or ideology of protecting native inhabitants, indigenous culture, etc., against immigrants and foreign influence A natural born citizen A citizen from birth by place of birth (or by descent); doesn’t need naturalization Native born A person born of a citizen of the U.S.; doesn’t need naturalization Naturalized citizen A person who has become a US citizen as opposed to being born as a US citizen Immigration Laws 1790: Naturalization Act 2 year residency required for all immigrants Foreign-born free and white could become citizens 1795: Naturalization Act Immigrants required to live in the U.S. for 5 years “Free white persons” 1868: 14 Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the States wherein they reside 1875: Page Act First federal immigration law Prohibited the entry of undesirable immigrants Excludes all Chinese women (considered prostitutes) Restrictive Immigration Legislation 1882: Immigration Act Federalized immigration 50 cent Head tax Banned “idiots, lunatics, convicts and person likely become a public charge.” 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1885: Contract Labor Law prohibits long term work contracts 1891: Immigration Act Excludes communicable diseases, mental disorders Ellis becomes official depot for first arrivals Where the majority of immigrants now come into 1894: Immigration Restriction League formed Prompted by ideas of Social Darwinism Several anti-immigration bills passed in the senate 1903: Excludes radicals (socialists, communists, anarchists) 1903-1916: 13 separate legislative acts passed 1907: “Gentlemen’s Agreement” 1917: Immigration Act Triumph of Nativism 1921: Johnson Emergency Quota Act 1910 Census 3% quota requirement on 1910 ethnic population 1924: National Origins Act A.K.A. Johnson-Reed Immigration Act Lowers quota to 2% Based on 1890 census 1929 Quota increases to 150,00 (and then a few times thereafter) Used the 1920 Census Immigration Reform Act of 1965 A.K.A. Hart-Cellar Immigration and Nationality Act “Placed a new emphasis on reuniting families and granting asylum to refugees, while also favoring immigrants with desired skills and ending the longstanding preference for Western Europeans.” Abolishes most restrictions Policies abolished: 170K immigrants in each year from Europe, Asia, Africa No more than 20K from a single country Preference to those whose immediate relatives are American citizens Raised quotas slowly – from 297,000 to 850,000 (2000) Prior to 1965: 9 of 10 immigrants from Europe and Canada >1/2 from Asia or Latin America Trends of the immigration era By 1990, 45% of documented aliens came were from Asia and Middle East Filipinos, Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese Increased Asian population by 100% (3.5 million) “Boat people” Result of war in Southeast Asia (Vietnam War) Vietnamese and Cambodian Mostly educated The era made the USA the most ethnically diverse society in the world A New America A truly pluralistic, multicultural society Whether native born Old and New immigrant stock liked it or not Decline of WASP dominance White Anglo Saxon Protestant Demonstrated by the election of 2012 In 2016, GOP candidate needs >70% of white vote to win Immigrants often vote for Democratic candidates In addition, 12-15 million undocumented aliens in the U.S. Nativism Every wave of immigration has produced nativism Africans in the 1770s Germans in the 1780s and 1830s Irish in the 1840s Essentially, all of the newest immigrants sparked some sort of nativism Recent wave has produced this among both white and black middle class Amnesty Act of 1986 Adopted under Ronald Reagan’s presidency Implemented in1988 Gave amnesty to the illegal immigrants living in the U.S. Number of unauthorized immigrants soared 5 million in 1986 (estimated) to 11.1 million today (estimated) Key Immigration Issues Path to citizenship – Dream Act Enforcement of existing laws Employers hiring illegal immigrants Human smugglers Employment opportunities Social services, including health care (CHIPS) Denying automatic citizenship to “anchor babies” Denying access to free public education Taxes Walling them out Stepping up deportation Stop and Identify laws In Arizona, police are allowed to stop everyone who “looks illegal” Critics of immigration Tom Tancredo – former Congressman from CO “We are in a clash of civilizations…” (2006) Samuel Huntington – Harvard professor, author of Who We Are: Challenges to America’s National Identity (2004) “The American Creed is the unique creation of a dissenting Protestant culture.” Both agree U.S. is a nation of immigrants; however they believe they are challenging the American identity Factors challenging American Identity (according to Huntington) Globalization: economic, cultural In a world that is becoming even more globalized, how does a country continue to keep its identity End of Cold War reduced importance of national identity Politicizing of issue by politicians Attempts of sub-national leaders to enhance personal and group status Bending the Constitution “not necessarily in the ways the framers intended.” (14 Amendment) National sympathy and guilt of academic elites for past U.S. actions Changing views of race and ethnicity fostered by Civil Rights Revolution and reflected in Immigration Act of 1965 The Turner Thesis, the West, and American Violence The Turner Thesis “The frontier is the line of most rapid Americanization.” Stated that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness, practical inventive turn of mind, and masterful grasp of material could all be attributed to the influence of the West The epitome of the U.S. In his eyes, the West has had a democratizing influence on the United States Turner - The Frontier was the chief influence in shaping these aspects of American life: Social Equality Growth of political democracy Nationalism Faith in the future Economic independence Safety valve for factory workers Invention Individualism Code of the West Honesty, Humility, courage, loyalty and hard work Honor: a man was only as good as his word A man is loyal to his friends and those he rides with “No Duty to Retreat”: imperative of self-redress The Rugged Individualist Mike Fink, Davey Crockett, Natty Bumpo, Ronald Reagan, George W., The Marlboro Man have all taken on the persona of this rugged individualist “Duty to Retreat” A command to avoid physical conflict between individuals Intended to produce civility Adopted in England Not in America “A man is not born to run away” Right to kill in self-defense is a modern concept “One of the most important transformations in American social history” Criminals as heroes Speaks to America’s fascination with criminality Social bandit – Heroic criminals An individual in both Western Europe and America whose crimes are viewed with approval by much society Jesse James America’s classic social bandit Got a great amount of coverage in the press and was seen in a glorified light as a result Al Capone Mass murderer, serial killer Glorified by society and the press American Creed Freedom, equality, democracy “Violent self-assertion” can very well be added to that No “Duty to Retreat” American Violence Riots Lynching (5000 deaths since CW) Vigilantism Indian wars (1000 killed since CW) Industrial (most numerous and violent labor strikes) Civil War (620,000 death toll) America comes to believe violence as an “entirely proper last resort to satisfy a legitimate grievance or rectify a glaring injustice.” Localism Slavery/race Required violence to enforce Ethnicity Ethnic violence was a result of the slavery era as well as nativism Tabula Rasa Violence could be developed by anyone Industrialization Labor riots/strikes incited more violence Modern Advertising “Propaganda” becomes “public relations” Coca-Cola was the first to start advertising Prior to 1920’s, ads were dry and dull Designed to make people aware of new products Emphasized functionality Tools like manipulation started to be used Growth of advertising Albert Lasker “Father of Modern Advertising” Described advertising as “salesmanship in print” Marketed orange juice Edward Bernays Used psychological manipulation to engineer consent Found most success in tobacco products Lucky Strike Marketed cigarettes as “torches of freedom” Played to the “empowering” feeling that women were feeling at the time “Tapping hidden desires and urges” Companies also started using athletes and celebrities to promote their cause Wheaties Advertising in modern times: Emphasis in individualism John F. Kennedy’s campaign was advertised like a product Critics of Modern Advertising Sparks a Consumer culture Causes false needs (“Hidden desire and urges”) Imposes conformity Debased taste to the lowest common denominator – what sells Implicit rejection of high arts and civilization Materialism Secularization Loss of values and standards Emphasis on individualism The New Woman Wore dresses that were a radical shift from their parents Led to the nickname “flappers” Represented the people “flaunting the new times” Received with much backlash by the media Changed the ground rules for college Women college attendance began to rapidly increase Notable names to know Margaret Sanger Founded Planned Parenthood Alice Paul Civil Rights Activist Florence Kelly The significance: women were actually doing constructive and productive things in society Wardrobe and clothing norms began to be greatly challenged Previously, showing space in between women’s legs was greatly frowned upon in society Sparked a Purity Crusade Anthony Comstock Narrow-minded bigot or champion of morality Comstock Law Blue Law Birth Control use became more abundant Mostly condoms Number of women in the work force doubled in the 1920’s Came with urbanization The Great Migration Rural to urban population shift Mainly African-Americans 1910 – 1920 Continued well into the 1960s 51% of blacks were outside South by 1950 5 million total by 1960 Sought a “richer and fuller life” Segregated neighborhoods Two popular destinations for blacks: Harlem, Chicago The Harlem Renaissance Cultural explosion that affects all of America A product of a “richer and fuller life” Produces a new awareness of the black population Similar to the New Woman, Alain Locke, the “Dean of the Harlem Renaissance,” coined the term “The New Negro” The Great Depression eventually undermines much of the growth that takes place during this time What the New Woman and the Harlem Renaissance represent Modernism A challenge to old standards and lifestyle