Show that if p is an odd prime, then there are exactly (p ‒ l)/2 quadratic residues of p among the integers 1,2,…, p‒ 1.

If p is an odd prime and a is an integer not divisible by p. the Legendre symbol is defined to be 1 if a is a quadratic residue of p and ‒ 1 otherwise.

Chemistry Lecture 7 Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium Dynamics of Chemical Reactions and Microscopic Reversibility Reactions can be reversible and dynamic when rate of forward and reverse reaction are equal reaction arrows in each direction can denote this Equilibrium does not mean same amount of reactant and product...