Prove Euler's criterion, which states that if p is ail odd prime and a is a positive integer not divisible by p, then

[Hint: If a is a quadratic residue modulo p, apply Fermat's little theorem: otherwise, apply Wilson's theorem, given in Exercise 18(b).]

POWERPOINT 7 ● distribution of sample means = the total number of sample means that are obtained for all of the possible random samples of a particular size (n) from a population ● we are examining the spread of our sample means ● statistics (values associated with a sample) have sampling variability associated with them ● sampling distribution...