Are each of these eight-digit codes possible ISSNs? That is, do they end with a correct check digit?
The Civil Rights Movement: nd caused by failed reconstruction, the 1960s is sometimes called the 2 reconstruction Barries to Equality: Jim Crow Laws: Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 sanctions; separate but equal -Poll tax & literacy Exams -KKK Early Groups & Catalysts - WWII: Sevice; Seg Units Major Groups - CORE - NAACP: Legal Strat. - Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) + SNCC (Student non-violent coordinating comm.) Civil Rights, Postwar Gains -Truman De-segregates Armed Services and Federal Agencies/Washington DC in recognition of their service - Jackie Robinson; played in the negro leagues, is first black to play in major leagues plays on Dodgers, suffered in dignity and wins Rookie of the year Stubborn Jim Crow -24 of 48 states -Custom (Local not formal laws) Blacks thought this was the work -Private Business Right -Utah: Lagoon ex. NAACP Early Strategy - Thrugood Marshall leads team (later becomes supreme court justice) - Sipuel v Oklahoma Board of Regents (1948): school denied smart girl entrance based on race and wanted them to create a black law school. They ended up admitting the students and putting them in their own roped off sections for them to still be separate. The supreme court said the states must provide a black law school. - Sweat v. Painter (1950) NAACP Legal Strategy - Thurgood Marshall: first to use social science data at the supreme court, just having different schools creates inferiority complex in blacks, show pictures of “equal” schools - Warren Court: Earl Warren is a very left leaning activist and leads a ton of progressive movements in civil rights - Brown v. Board of Education (1954): sympathetic client, get bussed across town despite living next to an elementary school - Justice Earl Warren: appointed by Eisenhower, has no lawyering background. Eisenhower later regrets. School De-segregation and Brown v. Board of Education -Outlaws segregated schools (1954); “Separate but Equal” violates Equal Protection clause in 14 ; creates sense of inferiority - Brown II 1955: must integrate with “all deliberate speed” (too vague and many places took way too long to integrate) Southern Resistance -Southern Manifesto: 99 Sign; -led by Strom Thurmond (fathered child with maid) -George Wallace 1963 “Seg. Now, Seg. Tomorrow, Seg. Forver!” -Private “white” academies: SC/MS Massive Resistance: Central High School, Little Rock, 1957 -Women’s Committee: let’s integrate on our own. -Little Rock 9 selected: best and brightest black students -Gov. Orville Faubus: brings in national guard to barr their entry. NAACP gets injunction. When they attempted an entry for a second time, they were halted by a mob and one student Was hit by a brick in the head. - Federal Intervention: Eisenhower doesn’t like the Brown vs. Board case, however he can’t Have the embarrassment of the mob and a state defying the federal government.Federal troops protected the little rock 9 for a year. Grassroots Activism: Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 -Ms. Rosa Parks: Most people generally accepted segregation due to heavily southern and confederate influences. The one provision that really made people angry was that if the white section was full and the whites asked the blacks to give up their seat then they would have to under the law. Rosa was a secretary for the NAACP. She intentionally got arrested so they could sue. Women had been arrested before for this but weren’t sympathetic enough. It incites the bus boycott. For an entire year, they boycotted the buses. They don’t necessarily win because of the boycott. However, it helped their court case. -MLK, NAACP, & Montgomery Bus Boycott: MLK is going 27 at the time. He’s part of the elite black community, has PhD in theology from Boston University. -Non-violent Strategy: Thoreau (Civil Disobedience- if a society has certain laws that are unjust or immoral, then you have a moral duty to oppose them.), Gandhi (sit down strikes, hunger strikes, walks; brought down the British Empire) , Jesus Christ (turn the other cheek philosophy) WWJD; never act violently but allow violence to be acted upon you, -Southern Christian Leadership Conference: SNCC- Stokely Carmichael, John Lewis, Julian Bond -Grassroots/Popular Protests: Freedom Rides; Swim In (1946) Beat mercilessly; First “Sit In” Greensboro, NC (1961): Black college students sat in on white lunch counters, white people poured tea and ketchup on their heads, a lot of the activist kids showed up to picket; it hit them where it hurts- the wallet. Corporate integrated the lunch counters. -Birmingham, April 1963: MLK, SLCL, SNCC v. Eugene “Bull” Conner ( a straight villain), policeman with hoses, riot gear, dogs, cattle prods, -Presidential Leadership: JFK and Lindon B. Johnson: Black voters want a civil rights bill, the height of the cold war and the world is watching, -High Point: August 1963 March on Washington: MLK giving “I have a dream” speech Took place to get people to vote for the bill. Done in view of congress. -JFK Assassination Nov. 22, 1963: Civil rights people were a little worried about LBJ taking over because he’s from Texas. JFK used as a martyr. LBJ knew the congress very well and would intimidate people and put his arm around you at the same time, very convincing. Political courage-“I think I just lost the southern democrats for generations to come.” -Civil Rights Act of 1964: Banned discrimination in public accommodations, banned discrimination in hiring based on race, religion, or gender. Jim Crow laws are off the books. (Gender was thrown in there to get it voted out. But it stayed and was an important gain for women) -Voting Rights Act of 1965: leads to end of poll taxes and literacy exams, allows federal oversight of local elections (recently essentially struck down by Supreme Court)