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When a Dodge Viper is at Elwood’s Car Wash, a BMW Z3 is at

University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321675460 31

Solution for problem 7DQ Chapter 2

University Physics | 13th Edition

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University Physics | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321675460 | Authors: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman

University Physics | 13th Edition

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Problem 7DQ

When a Dodge Viper is at Elwood’s Car Wash, a BMW Z3 is at Elm and Main. Later, when the Dodge reaches Elm and Main, the BMW reaches Elwood’s Car Wash. How are the cars’ average velocities between these two times related?

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PSYC 1000 Week 12 Notes ­ April 4­8 CHAPTER 14 Textbook Notes Introduction to Personality and Psychodynamic Theories (p. 571­582) ­ Personality: individual pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting ­ Psychodynamic theories: view personality by focusing on the unconscious and childhood experiences ­ Psychoanalysis: Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to subconscious motives and conflicts ­ Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious by relaxing and saying whatever comes to mind ­ Freud's view of personality as effort to resolve conflict ­ Id: unconscious, pleasure principle ­ Ego: partly conscious, reality principle ­ Executive, mediates between Id and Superego ­ Superego: moral compass/conscience ­ Psychosexual stages: Freud's theory that childhood exists in a series of stages, each focused on an erogenous zone ­ Defense mechanisms: the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality ­ Projective tests: personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of thoughts (not very reliable or valid) Humanistic Theories and Trait Theories (p. 583­594) ­ Humanistic theories: view personality with a focus on the potential for personal growth ­ Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior ­ Personality inventory: a questionnaire used to assess selected personality traits ­ Big Five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion Social­Cognitive Theories and the Self (p. 595­607) ­ Social­cognitive perspective: views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and social context ­ Reciprocal determinism: the interacting influences of behavior, social cognition, and environment ­ Self­serving bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably Personal Control (p. 501­503) ­ Learned helplessness: conditioned feelings of passive resignation ­ Causes increase of stress hormones and decreased health ­ External locus of control: perception that chance or outside forces determine our fate ­ Internal locus of control: perception that we control our own fate Lecture Notes Freud's psychoanalytic theory, measuring the unconscious ­ Projective personality tests: tests that employ ambiguous stimuli to evoke responses that reveal facets of someone's personality ­ Thematic Apperception test: people asked to tell a story about ambiguous pictures ­ Rorschach inkblot test: people asked to interpret ambiguous inkblots ­ Problems ­ Subjective interpretation ­ Lacking in reliability and validity ­ No way to score/objectively interpret answers ­ Critiques/problems of the psychoanalytic approach ­ Unscientific ­ Does not provide testable predictions ­ Not supported by research Humanistic Approach ­ Optimistic approach; sees people as intrinsically good ­ Innate drive to fulfill potential (self­actualization tendency) ­ Rogers' Person­Centered theory: people strive for growth as long as they encounter supportive environments (quality of relationships) ­ Requirements for personal growth ­ Genuineness, empathy, and acceptance ­ Acceptance types: conditional positive regard (love with strings attached) vs. unconditional positive regard (love despite flaws) ­ Only unconditional positive regard supports personal growth according to Rogers; pretending to be someone you're not to gain acceptance will thwart personal growth ­ Critiques of Humanistic Approach ­ Unrealistic, vague Trait Approach ­ Personality is a combination of traits ­ Traits: specific, stable, and internal characteristics ­ Trait theories differ in defining the fundamental dimensions of personality ­ Research techniques ­ Questionnaires ­ Factor analysis: statistically correlated clusters of items; identifies patterns of how people answer questions ­ Grouped together on one trait dimension ­ Reflect basic traits ­ Eysenck's Trait Theory ­ Two fundamental dimensions of personality ­ Introversion/Extroversion and Emotional Stability (relaxed)/Instability (anxious) ­ Biological basis ­ Inherited levels of brain and autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity ­ Extraverts ­ Inherit low baseline levels of arousal, so they seek out more stimulation to bring arousal to a higher level ­ Positive emotions, more likely to wear stylish clothing and decorate offices ­ Introverts ­ Inherit high baseline levels of arousal, so they don't need extra arousal because they are easily over­aroused ­ More neutral emotions, more likely to be sensitive to punishment and choose comfort over style ­ Lemon juice experiment: introverts salivate more to a drop of lemon juice on tongue because they have more reactive nervous systems ­ Gray's Bio­psychological Trait theory: personality arises from two interrelated brain systems ­ Behavioral approach system (BAS): sensitivity for reward ­ People with high BAS experience rewards more intensely than others, so they are more likely to seek out reward ­ Vulnerable to impulsivity (reward > punishment) ­ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS): sensitivity to punishment ­ People with high BIS experience punishment more intensely, so they are strongly motivated to avoid punishment ­ People differ in the relative sensitivities of their BAS and BIS; people can be high on both or low on both ­ Supported by scientific research Big Five Model of Personality: there are 5 main trait dimensions for personality ­ Conscientiousness (disorganized/impulsive vs. organized/careful) ­ Agreeableness (ruthless/uncooperative vs. soft­hearted/helpful) ­ Neuroticism [emotional instability] (calm/secure vs. anxious/insecure) ­ Openness (practical/conforming vs. imaginative/independent) ­ Extraversion Objective personality tests: test that consists of clear questions that can be objectively scored ­ Come in the form of personality inventories: tests that measure several traits at once ­ Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised (NEO­PI­R): reliable, valid, predicts social status, career success, and criminal activity ­ Minnesota Multiphasic ­ Personality Inventory (MMPI) ­ Assesses psychological disorders Social­Cognitive Approach ­ Interaction between personality, thinking, behavior, and the situation ­ Bandura and reciprocal influences ­ Personality and environment influence each other; personalities are shaped by life experiences, and personalities influence environment by choice of friends and activities and spaces ­ Rotter's expectancy theory: we behave according to our expectation of results ­ Depends on our feelings of personal control ­ Internal locus of control: fate is self­determined; associated with health, well­being, and achievement ­ External locus of control: fate is out of your control; associated with depression and learned helplessness ­ Learned helplessness: tendency to give up on efforts to control events after previous efforts failed ­ Seligman & Maier's dog shock experiment Exploring the self ­ Self­esteem: feelings of self­worth ­ Optimal level ­ No relationship between self­esteem and GPA, but yes relationship between self­esteem and happiness/talkativeness ­ Positive correlation between unrealistically high self­esteem (defensive self­esteem) and violence/aggression ­ Defensive self­esteem: fragile, insecure, and easily threatened ­ Secure self­esteem: secure ­ Self­serving bias: tendency to think highly of ourselves ­ Reflected in tendencies to take credit when things go well and to blame circumstances when things go wrong ­ Tendency to think we are more attractive than we actually are ­ Tendency to remember the past in self­enhancing ways ­ Positive correlation with self­esteem ­ Less pronounced in Asian cultures ­ Optimal level; people with depression often lack self­serving bias ­ Better­than­average effect: tendency to think of ourselves as being above average CHAPTER 15 ­ Psychological disorder = psychopathology ­ Ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning, deviate from the norm, and cause distress or disrupt lives ­ Deviant, dysfunctional, and disruptive ­ No clear boundary between mental health and mental illness ­ Abnormal psychology: subset of psychology that deals with psychological disorders ­ Nearly half of people in the US will meet the criteria of a disorder in their lifetime ­ Most people experience symptoms by mid­20's ­ Bio­psychosocial approach ­ Interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors ­ Biological factors: neurotransmitter imbalance, genes, hormonal imbalance, physical illness, and drug use ­ Psychological factors: self­esteem, interpretation of events ­ Social factors: stress, poverty, and relationships ­ Psychological disorders twice as prevalent in people living in poverty (stress, lack of healthcare, psychological disorders causing poverty) ­ Culture ­ Disorders take on different forms in different cultures ­ Depression manifested as physical symptoms in China ­ Boys tend to externalize; girls tend to internalize ­ Culture­general disorders: disorders found in all cultures; symptoms may differ somewhat but clearly the same disorder (depression, schizophrenia) ­ Culture­specific/culture­bound disorders: disorders specific to particular cultures (anorexia, bulemia) Diathesis­stress model ­ Diathesis: predisposition ­ Individuals have various degrees of predisposition for various disorders, coming from genes and early experiences in life ­ Disorders depend on degree of predisposition and amount of stress ­ Explains rise in psychological disorders after major traumatic event DSM­5 Classification System ­ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ­ Provides criteria for each psychological disorder ­ Provides consistency for diagnoses ­ Research based ­ Problems: labeling and stigmatization (diagnosed people can experience different treatment) Anxiety disorders ­ Psychological symptoms: worrying, fear, nervousness, irritability, and difficulty concentrating ­ Physical symptoms: enhanced sympathetic nervous system activation (shaking, increased heart rate, sweating) ­ Biological factors ­ Genetic predisposition ­ Neurotransmitter imbalances ­ Brain and autonomic nervous system sensitivity and reactivity ­ Psychological and social factors ­ Neuroticism ­ Attentional bias: more likely to notice and remember possibly threatening stimuli ­ More likely to interpret ambiguous situations as being threatening ­ Low self­efficacy (one's perception of their own ability to cope with difficult situations) ­ Stressful events ­ Learned fear, avoidance is negative reinforcement ­ Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive and long­lasting anxiety for no particular reason ("free­floating") ­ Exaggerated startle response: show more of a reaction when startled ­ Hyper­vigilant: constantly monitoring environment for possible threat ­ Distractibility, irritability, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness ­ Co­morbid with depression ­ Panic Disorder: recurring, unpredictable panic attacks ­ Panic attack: sudden attack of extreme, intense, anxiety ­ May lead to agoraphobia: fear of situations in which escape may be difficult or in which help might not be available ­ Specific Phobia: strong, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, where the fear is disproportionate to the threat ­ Avoidance of what they are afraid of; if avoidance disrupts life, then it is a phobia ­ Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people's judgments ­ Avoidance of social situations ­ Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): jumpy, on­edge, irritable, withdrawn, experience flashbacks, nightmares, and insomnia ­ Common among individuals who have experienced horrific, uncontrollable events ­ Veterans, victims of sexual assault ­ Vulnerability (those with high neuroticism and sensitive/reactive nervous systems) ­ Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder (OCD): urge to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors ­ Obsessions: intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts ­ Create anxiety ­ Compulsions: irresistible urges, repetitive behaviors ­ Provide temporary relief ­ Time­consuming ­ Genetic predispositions, imbalances in neurotransmitters (serotonin, glutamate), neuroticism, stress ­ Major Depressive Disorder: feeling sad/hopeless most of the time, for a period of at least two weeks ­ Psychological symptoms: sadness, guilt, low self­esteem, pessimism, anxiety, poor concentration, isolation, and anhedonia (lack/loss of pleasure) ­ Physical symptoms: change in eating and sleeping, pain, low energy, weakened immune system ­ Recurrent episodes ­ Triggered by stressful events ­ Biological factors: genetic predisposition, imbalances in neurotransmitters (lack of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine), increased stress response ­ Psychological and social factors: neuroticism, reaction to negative and positive events, learned helplessness and external locus of control, perfectionism, negative explanatory style (lack of self­serving bias), and stress

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Chapter 2, Problem 7DQ is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics
Edition: 13
Author: Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321675460

Since the solution to 7DQ from 2 chapter was answered, more than 739 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: University Physics, edition: 13. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 7DQ from chapter: 2 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 05/06/17, 06:07PM. The answer to “When a Dodge Viper is at Elwood’s Car Wash, a BMW Z3 is at Elm and Main. Later, when the Dodge reaches Elm and Main, the BMW reaches Elwood’s Car Wash. How are the cars’ average velocities between these two times related?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 42 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: wash, bmw, Car, reaches, dodge. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 26 chapters, and 2929 solutions. University Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321675460.

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