For which nonnegative integers n is n2 ? n!? Prove your answer.
Psychology 3101 FINAL Study Guide for Exam 3 [[Part I]] & [[Part 2]] Updated 4/7 with material from guest lectures ALL TOPICS listed here are fair game for exam questions FROM PREVIOUS LECTURES: You should still know the major dimensions of personality for this exam: make sure you haven’t forgotten the traits/behaviors associated with the Big Five, since these traits are discussed in Exam 3 material (e.g. with reference to attachment style and cross-cultural studies) Psychoanalytic theory: - A method of investigating and treating personality disorders and its used in psychotherapy. Included in this theory is the idea that things that happen to people during childhood can contribute to the way they later function as adults Week 10: Freud, Psychoanalysis, & the Unconscious Freud’s ideas based on: •Intensive case studies (20-30 people) •Freud’s theory focuses on the interplay and tension between various combinations of unconscious and conscious forces within people. •Behavior = the outcome of struggles and compromises between unconscious motives, drives, needs, and conflicts that have been shaped by our animal/evolutionary past. Know Freud’s stages of development. For each of Freud’s stages, know the corresponding aspects: Physical focus: Where energy is concentered and gratification is obtained Psychological theme: related to the physical focus and the demands from the outside world Adult character type: associated with being fixated, or not resolving the psychological issues, in a stage Terms: Psychic determinism: The audition that everything that happens in a person's mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a specific cause. Psychic conflict: The phenomenon in which one part of the kind is at cross-purpose with another part of the mind. Id: In psychoanalytic theory, the repository of the drives, the emotions, and the primitive, unconscious part of the mind that wants everything now. Superego: In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the mind that consists of the conscience and the individual's system of internalized rules of conduct, or morality Ego: In psychoanalytic theory, the relatively rational part of the mind that balances the competing claims of the Id, the superego, and reality. Difference between Id, Ego & Superego: Id—pleasure (irrational & emotional) - Source of drive energy; sexual and aggressive instincts - ‘My id wants that marshmallow!’ Supergo—moral perfection (super moral) - Moral functioning; societal ideals - ‘I cant have that marshmallow until the adult gets back, and then I will eat it without making a mess’ Ego—rational/reality-based - Mediates between Id and superego; strives for reality - ‘I will wait patiently until the adult gets back, then I will have two marshmallows and eat them right away to reward myself’ Defense mechanisms (what are they for how do they work what are some examples we covered) Denial: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that allows the mind to deny that a current source of anxiety exists. Rationalization: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that produce a seemingly logical rationale for an impulse or thought that otherwise would cause anxiety. Repression: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that banishes the past from current awareness. Displacement*: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that redirects an impulse from a dangerous target to a safe one. Intellectualization: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which thoughts that otherwise would cause anxiety are translated into cool, analytic, nonarousing terms. Reaction Formation: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that keeps an anxiety producing impulse or thought in check by producing it's opposite. Projection*: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism of attributing to somebody else a thought or impulse one fears in oneself. Sublimation: In psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism that turns otherwise dangerous or anxiety-producing impulses toward constructive Parapraxes: An unintentional utterance or action caused by a leakage from the unconscious parts of the mind; also called Freudian ship Know the five critiques of Freud (listed in lecture slides and discussed in your textbook ) 1) Excessive complexity: - More than is necessary, normal, or desirable; immoderate - e.g: Boys sexually desire their mothers, but they worry that their fathers will be jealous and castrate them in punishment, so they identify with their fathers in order to vicariously enjoy the mother and lessen the threat from the lecture 2) Case Study method: - Their theorizing is based on analysts’ (including Freud’s) introspections and on insights drawn from single therapeutic cases, which are (by law) confidential - Freud said he could never reveal because of the need to protect his patients’ privacy - This case study method is uncheckable means that it may be biased 3) Vague definitions - Concepts should not be defined in terms of the operations or procedures by which it can be identified and measured - e.g: As repressions accumulate, at what point will one run out of energy for daily living (will never ask these kinds of questions) 4) Untestability - Cannot be prove false (untestable) - The real question is not whether psychoanalysis is testable in a strict sense, but whether the theory leads to hypotheses that can be tested individually 5) Sexism - Males are considered to be the norm - Females are considered as aberrations or deviations from the make model - Freud thought females had less self-esteem, creativity, and morality than males, spent most of their lives coming to term with not being males (you do not need to know about Freudian psychotherapy techniques) Week 10 – Attachment theory What is Attachment Theory - A theoretical perspective that draws on psychoanalytic thought to describe the development and importance of human attachments to emotionally significant other people What are the functions of attachment in infancy 1) Proximity maintenance: - Staying near the caregiver (aka ‘attachment figure’) - ‘The essential feature of affectional bonding’ 2) Safe haven - Seeking out caregiver for comfort when distressed What are the three stages of separation distress 1) Protest (Persistent attempts to re-establish contact) 2) Despair (Prolonged inactivity/helplessness) 3)Detachment (Withdrawal from/coolness toward attachment figure) Know the three main attachment styles seen in early childhood( as defined by early attachment researchers) 1) Secure - Causes: Parents are consistently responsive and caring 2) Avoidant: - Causes: Parents rejects child’s need for care and comfort 3) Anxious-ambivalent - Causes: Parents are inconsistent or unpredictable Understand that in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation experiment, researchers observe the way babies react when their parent returns to the room. The longer it takes the child to be calmed by the presence of the mother/caregiver, the less likely that baby is to be securely attached What kinds of adult behaviors are related to each attachment style (Classic Attachment Styles in adulthood) 1) Secure - Find it easy to form long, secure, trusting relationships - ‘Easy to be with’ - Trust that others will provide love and support 2) Anxious/ Ambivalent (Anxious/Unpredictable) - Obsessed with romantic partners/close relationships - Extreme jealousy, more relationships failure - Low self-esteem - Describe parents as intrusive, unfair, inconsistent - Fear abandonment; feel their needs might not be met (crave contact) 3) Avoidant - Work alone - Withdrawal from others stressed; ignore/deny stress - Describe parents as either rejecting/cold, or in vague language (‘nice’) - Defensively detach/withdraw from others Understand that attachment style is easy to talk about as a categorical “type”, but has recently been reformulated in a dimensional model Know the 2 dimensions and the attachment “types” produced by being high and/or low in each Understand that the Avoidance domain can be characterized as a working model of what others are like (“are others responsive caregivers”), whereas the Anxiety domain can be thought of as a working model of self (“am I worthy of being loved”) What is a working model Transference Working models (often stress-induced): - People feel ill, fatigued, stressed, or are in pain - Environmental factors are threatening (due to fear, relationship separation/loss, hightly challenging situations) - Core attachment concerns become salient Transference: - Applying old patterns of behavior and emotions to new relationships . Focuses on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life Understand the following: studies show that there is substantial variability on how much early attachment patterns influence adult outcomes… so long as early relationships weren’t pathologically bad (e.g. really bad, really neglectful/abusive), attachment style seems much more likely to be a system that continually adapts What is the average heritability of attachment style Adults: Heritability (for types) >Additive genetic effects: -37%, 43% and 25% of the variance in the secure, fearful and preoccupied adult attachment styles, respectively - but none of the variance in the dismissing/avoidant style >Nonshared environmental: - Majority of the variance in all styles: 63% secure, 57% fearful, 75% preoccupied, and 71% dismissing >Shared environmental - Negligible for all styles except dismissing/avoidant (29%) Week10 Lecture 1 – Culture & Personality (Part 1) Know what is meant by the following dimensions of cultural differences: tightness vs. looseness: _ Tolerance of deviation from proper behavior; cultures that are ethnically homogeneous and densely populated tend to be lighter than cultures that are more diverse or spread out achievement vs. affiliations: - The need to achieve could be assessed by looking at children’s stories (The Little Engine that Could); high need for achievement is associated with faster industrial growth tough vs. easy: head vs. heart: - Emphasizing artistic excellence, creativity, curiosity, critical thinking, and learning vs. fairness, mercy, gratitude, hope, love, and religion Collectivism-individualism is one of the most commonly studied dimensions of cultural variation. What is it, and what does it mean What are the behavioral, emotional, and motivational correlates of collectivism-individualism >Collectivism-individualism - The importance of needs and rights of the group vs. the individual - The self and the others - Personality and collectivism . Example: Different predictors of satisfaction with life Harmony of relationships with others in collectivist cultures Self-esteem in individualistic cultures - Behavior, emotion and motivation . Social interactions People in collectivists cultures spend more time in social interactions that are more intimate . Self-focused vs. other-focused emotions People in individualistic cultures report more self-focused emotions, E.g: anger when feeling insulted vs. sympathy that someone is upset at you . Important of love in marriage Arranged marriages are more common in collectivist cultures . What emotional experience depends on More dependent on social worth, the nature of social reality, and relationships in collectivist culture . Fundamental motivations > Collectivist cultures focus more on avoiding loss of respect because respect by others can be easily lost and is difficult to regain; individualist culture focus more achievement of pleasure or reward; leads to self-enhancement in individualist cultures Understand what is meant by vertical culture and horizontal culture. Be familiar with the concept of “crossing” collectivism-individualism with vertical- horizontal. Vertical Cultures: - Are more common competitive and entail dominance hierarchies with more levels and fewer people near the top E.g: USA (individualist), India, China (Collectivist) Vertical Horizont al Horizontal Cultures: - Cultures people tend to feel more tightly bound to the level at which their collective identity is located and thus less able to rise (or fall) .E.g: Denmark (Individualist), Israeli Kibbutz (Collectivist) Understand: Honor Cultures: - More common when laws and police are weak or nonexistent - People must protect themselves, their families, and their property - Important to not appear vulnerable because this could put the person at risk . E.g: Retaliate against insults, signal that you are ready to use violence . Historic American South, Latin America Face Cultures: - More common in societies with stable hierarchies based on cooperation - High motivation to protect one’s and other’s social imag - High respect for authority figures; avoidance of controversy - Japan, China Dignity Cultures: - Belief that individuals are valuable in their own right and this value does not come from what others think of them - ‘Think different’ USA Know the following findings: •Individuals who more strongly accept the cultural norms are more likely to behave in ways consistent with the cultural dimensions •“Individual differences within a society are every bit as important, if not more important, than the differences between them” (p. 493) Be familiar with the list (from the slides) and rationale behind the possible causes of geographical differences in culture/personality Geographical Variation in Traits: Possible causes: - Patterns of migration: . Founder effects The person who first settled an area tended to have a particular personally profile . Selective migration: Extraversion: Increased migration, especially rural to urban Neuroticism: Increased migration in general, but decreased distance . Social influence Conforming- neuroticism Agressableness Reinforcing # A highly disagreeable culture may discourage its members from having very high levels of Agreeableness because people are seen as generally untrustworthy and uncooperative . Environmental influence: Climate (warmth & aggression; low light & depression) Neighborhood characteristics (density, basic resources) Why is it difficult to compare personality structure across cultures Are there any traits that seem to be truly universal - Extraversion, Agreeableness, (maybe) conscientiousness . How people interact socially is influenced by these traits The HEXACO model is the second most popular after the Big Five. What are the six traits within HEXACO What is the specific definition of the Honesty/Humility trait The 6 Factors: 1) Extraversion 2) Conscientiousness 3) Intellect/Imagination/Unconventionally 4) Emotionally (- neuroticism, minus anger, plus sentimentality) (agreeableness- empathy) 5) Agreeableness (versus anger) 6) Honesty-Humilty Honesty: Sincerity and fairness Humility: Unpretentiousness, lack of greed Terms: Cross-cultural psychology: Research & theorizing that attempt to account for the psychological differences between and within different cultural groups (example: materialism—Americans are known for being materialistic, but they also differ on how materialistic they are) culture: Psychological attributes of groups, including customs, habits, beliefs, and values that shape emotions, behavior and life patterns - May include language, modes of thinking, and fundamental views of reality Enculturation: The process of socialization through which an individual acquires his native culture, mainly early in life Acculturation: The process of partially or fully acquiring a new cultural outlook Etics: The universal components of ideas across cultures - Conception of duty; marriage Emics: Components of ideas that are particular to certain cultures; what one’s actual duty is in a specific culture (what rules should be followed); - Reasons for marriage (love, business, etc) - Some concepts might only have meaning in one culture (relationship reciprocity, predestined relationship) Holistic Thinking: Is the inquiry of a complex whole. It takes into account its purpose, values, function in its environment, process, and structure. Independent Thinking: Is the process of making sense of the world based on your own observations and experiences rather than depending on the world of others. cultural relativism: The principle of regarding the beliefs, values, and practices of a culture from the viewpoint of that culture itself. Week 10 Lecture 2 – Culture & Personality (Part 2) Western and non-western cultures tend to differ regarding their descriptions of themselves and others. What are the ways in which they appear to differ (that we discussed in class) - People from various non-Western cultures are more likely to describe themselves in tersm of their social roles or specific descriptors that are not abstract trait terms Know the basic findings of Kanagawa et al. (2001) (self-description study) and Oishi et al. (2014) (experience-sampling study) Kanagawa et al., self-description study: - Filling out a questionnaire in front of a professor versus in front of one peer, a group of peers, or alone - Japanese self-descriptions varied significantly more depending on the testing situation than did Americans’ Oishi et al, experience-sampling study: - Asked participants in India, Japan, Korean, and the United States to record their mood and who they were with (e.g: their situation) at random moments during the say - Cultural differences emerged in the effect of situations on mood - For example, whereas Japanese participants felt much happier when with a romantic partner than otherwise, Americans did not experience as much of a mood change - Mood was more influenced by situation in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures Know the two “main points” from the studies of East Asian vs. Western population samples (Slide 8) 1) Self-concept in East Asian contexts appears to be more grounded in one’s roles and relationships rather than something that primarily derives from traits 2) A person’s traits shift across situations in an individually characteristic pattern Know the basic findings of the Luhrmann et al. (2014) study that examined cultural differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations (this article is now posted online if you would like to read beyond the information posted in the slides—it is a pretty short article) Auditory Hallucinations = Systems of psychosis, hearing voices as if they are being spoken aloud (common in schizophrenia, bipolar, depression) Luhrmann et al, Interview study: - Typical content in Western psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia= violent, persecutory, fighting . Voices tell people to hurt themselves or others . Patients likely to describe it as battle/war in their mind . View their mind as broken/disrupted . People will acknowledge some positive voices, but negative voices predominate for most What are the universal human values as described in the textbook (Ch 14), and where do they fit into the value circumplex (Openness to change vs. conservatism, Self-transcendence vs. Self-enhancement) Related: what is the basic idea behind how these values might reflect historical cultural goals The 10 possibly universal values are power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, understanding, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security) - That everybody, everywhere, wants to achieve Stimulation is high on openness to change and low on conservatism, whereas conformity, tradition, and security are the reverse. Likewise, achievement is high on self-enhancement and low on self-transcendence, while benevolence is the reverse. Be able to explain Bicultural Identity Integration: - Continuum along which people with two cultural backgrounds differ in the extent to which they see themselves as members of a combined joint culture that integrates aspects of both cultures Terms Ecology: Physical layout and resources of the land, and the distinctive tasks and challenges this culture has faced; for example: need for complex agricultural projects and water systems in China, required coordination and results in collectivism Ethnocentrism: judging another culture from the point of view of one’s own; observers need to understand behaviors of people within that culture; this is difficult to do Auditory Hallucinations: False perceptions of sound. Goals and Motivation (guest lecture) Know the types of goals discussed in class Understand the different goal assessments and what kinds of goals they assess Be familiar with lecture content on goals across the lifespan Terms Goals: The ends that one desires (e.g: getting an A on the test, or learning about psychology) Strategies: The individual uses to achieve their goals (e.g: reading the textbook, or coming to class) Primary Goals: Goals drive behavior by influencing what you think about, what you attend to, and what you do Judgment & Development goals: Judgment: Seeking to judge or validate an attribute in oneself (E.g: goal of convincing yourself that you are smart, beautiful, or popular) Development goals: Desire to actually improve yourself Narrative & Personality (Guest Lecture) In the context of narrative coding, be able to define agency, communion, redemption, and contamination. Know the examples from the slides. Use the Adler (2015) reading (“Four Core Themes” section) for more information on these definitions. It’s posted with the lecture slides in Topic 14.