Draw the shear and bending-moment diagrams for the beam.
Week 6 Developmental Psychology Notes Emotional expressions give infants the ability to communicate with their caretakers and begin this emotional bond with them Self-‐conscious emotions: Emotions evoked by the emotional reactions of others Social Smile: smile that occurs to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of a young infant. Occurs as early as 2 months of age Reflexive Smile: smile that doesn’t occur in response to external stimuli. It appears during the first month after birth usually during sleep Stranger Anxiety: An infant’s fear and wariness of strangers that typically appears in the second half of the first year of life Social Referencing: “reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation Temperament: an individual’s behavioral style and characteristics way of responding emotionally 1. Easy Child: positive, quick to adapt 2. Difficult: negative, cries a lot, slow to adapt, irregular daily routines 3. Slow to warm up: low activity level, somewhat negative, and displays low intensity of mood Goodness of fit: match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope. Mirror Test: strategy to test infant’s visual self-‐recognition. Mother puts something on infant’s nose and sees how it responds to it. See if they try to take it off because it prevents them from seeing their full self in the mirror. Attachment: Think of Harry Harlow and the monkey experiment Ainsworth’s Strange Situation: Observational measure of infant attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult strange in a prescribed order. 1. Securely attached babies 2. Insecure avoidant babies 3. Insecure resistant babies 4. Insecure disorganized babies Attachment: Ethological theory (survival or species) Secure vs insecure attachment Factors: -‐mother’s availability, responsiveness “contact comfort” -‐ infant’s responsiveness, cuteness -‐ stability and consistency in the relationship (Harlow Monkey Experiment) Ainsworth’s Strange Situation • Play/exploration when mother present • Response when mother returns after absence • Mother’s comforting is effective Self-‐concept (awareness) Awareness of oneself as a separate entity from environment *evidence: Mirror Test likes/dislikes language (me, mine and no) in humans develop 18-‐24 months Freud *oral stage (10-‐18 months) mouth erogenous zone *anal stage (18-‐3 years) Erikson *trust vs. mistrust (0-‐12 months) * autonomy vs shame & doubt (12 months-‐ 3 years) Long term outcomes of secure attachment -‐ Confidence in problem-‐ solving and exploration -‐ Better social skills/ peer relationships -‐ High self esteem -‐ Better performance in schools ^^ correlational scaffolding Vygotsky’s theory adult (caregiver) provides support/structure for child to develop and learn, just enough help to guide – but not too much or doing it for them