The tractor exerts a towing force T = 400 lb. Determine the normal reactions at each of the two front and two rear tires and the tractive frictional force F on each rear tire needed to pull the load forward at constant velocity. The tractor has a weight of 7500 lb and a center of gravity located at GT. An additinal weight of 600 lb is added to its front having a center of gravity at GA. Take ms = 0.4. The front wheels are free to roll.
Sociology 100 Exam 1Study Guide The focus of social science is to see what decisions got made for you before you made that decisions. How society influences ever day decisions and behaviors. The focus of sociology is focused more on how society and our surroundings influence us and our behaviors where as other sciences look at other influences that are not society related. Changes in technology, social arrangements and people’s thinking led to the development of sociology. The focus differed between Europe and the U.S. in that the U.S. did not focus all of their efforts on building sweeping theories of society. They concentrated on solving specific social problems. Europeans were trying to build sociology into a basic science like physics or chemistry many US sociologists treated sociology as an applied science like engineering. Social Institutions Ideas that fulfill a society’s needs System of behaviors and relationship patterns that are interwoven and enduring, and function across an entire society Paradigm A set of assumptions Everything you think you know Macro Theory Societal Structure Identifying larger social structure systems and enduring features of society Ex. Unemployment Micro Theory Biographical Interaction Individual and contexts of interaction Information as it reflects individuals’ activities Ex. Purchases Mills Social Imaginationsays ability to look beyond the personal troubles of an individual to see the public issues of social structure Biographicalspecific to individual and immediate social relationship Societalresulting from overlap of institutions that organize social life Comte Stages of knowing Theologicalreligion as source of knowledge Metaphysicalphilosophical reflection Positivescientific principles *individualism seen as root of social chaos Positivismview that social behavior ought to be studied using only the methods of natural sciences Tommies Gemenschaftrelations entered into as ends in and of themselves We care about person, not the deed Ex. Boyfriend Gessellschaftrelations entered into to achieve some specific goal The person is a role first, then person Ex. Cashier, tutor Goals in sociology is to understand why societies and people do what they do: Three ways: 1. Structural Functionalism: society is an entity or whole that is made up of many integrated parts Consensus view of social order what values and norms are important Ex. Money is good, murder is bad Manifestintended and obvious consequences Latentunintended Dysfunctionlatent functions that have a negative impact on society usual functioning Ex. Schools, first to teach; now to get money Durkheim Social Fact individualism may not be the end because even selfish people need one another to survive Collective Consciencein a society with a simple division of labor, peoples work would be alike and also would the people Similar circumstances lead to having shared ideals and values Mechanical Modern Societiesas division of labor becomes more complex and different, so do interests, values, and beliefs We need social interaction As we become more independent and different we come more dependent on each other Organic 2. Conflict Theory Macro theoretical Within given society there are subgroups of people who have conflicting beliefs, values, and goals Competition for resources Coercive view of social order Inequality who has power, who doesn’t Associated with Marx Marx Focused on economy not sociology Interested in influence of economic circumstances Says most important theory of society is mode of production and distribution of good Everything comes down to economic organizationaccess to resources, things and money We look at conflicts of interest between SOCIAL CLASSES Bourgeoisieupperclass, capitalists Proletariatworking class Weber Must look at influence of ideas and values as well as economic conditions (or material things) Rationalizationtrend in viewing people as means to ends in audience of increasing rational behavior Wants to know what it is about modernity that triggers rational behavior Dubois Not just economic differences Differences between race, gender 3. Symbolic interaction Micro People construct their own social worlds and use symbols to make sense of their environment Objectivity Judgements based on facts and undistorted emotions Ex. Rocks, trees Subjectivity Opinions based on personal impressions Ex. Thoughts, feelings, beliefs Ethnocentrism (I am center, own ways center) We don’t see different as different, we judge We view our own ways as center and other ways are scaled and rated with reference to it Cultural Relativism Other ways of believing and doing can only be understood within our own cultural contexts *does not mean everything goes, just means understanding others cultures/beliefs Research Methods Inductive Specific to general Generalization from specific examples Begin with data or specific observations and develop a general explanation or theory to account for it From data to theory Deductive General to specific From theory to data Begin with a theory implying that certain data will result from particular circumstances Positivism observable, verifiable Data information Empirical evidence sate derived directly from systematic observation and experience (opposed to intuition, gut) Ex. One person buys blue car, everyone buys blue care Two Pillars of Science theoretical, empirical 1. Logic Does it make sense/ 2. Observation Does it correspond with what actually happens Theory logical link between two variables Research is the effort to connect theory and empirical data and there are a couple ways that we can do this Quantitative Research Numbers Counts and measurements: focus is on data that can be easily expressed in numbers Qualitative Research Characterization, qualities Takes social meanings: focus is on character of quality of observations (non numerical) Hypothesis variation in one variable is proposed to predict influence or cause variation in another Independent variable Can stand alone Can cause change Presumed cause Dependent variable Can’t stand alone Presumed affect Correlation is not always causation Culture a complex whole consisting of what we think, how we think, and all that we have acquired as members of society Shapes the way we interpret/see everything Product of human action & interaction Culture systems total package of material and nonmaterial cultures Material things, actual stuff Nonmaterial ideas, values, anything interpretable What we take to be instinctual is often cultural Material culture Things made by humans or adapted from nature (Sticks in forest VS. stick used as walking stick) Artifacts product of human behavior Technology, physical appearance Technology toys, social media for each generation of values Physical appearance hairstyles for each generation of values ***reflects what we value ***signals what we are, rank, what we value Symbolic/Nonmaterial Culture Intangible things Symbols Values Language Beliefs Norms All of these things have some meaning; we must agree that they represent something Ex.) middle finger, we create the meaning, and it sticks Symbol something that stands for or carries a particular meaning recognized by the people who share a culture (Nike swoosh, $) No inherent meaning, but react as if they are the “thing” Gestures things we interpret Nodding, posture Different in other cultures “no gestures had the same meaning across all culture” true or no Language organized set of symbols “without language there can be no culture” Facilitates cooperation among many people Convey agreed meaning VERY IMPORTANT Reflects what’s important Saphir Whorf Languages reflect culture value Norms rules or standards about behavior, EXPRESS WHAT WE VALUE ** We make it mean this stuff Folkways assumptions of what will happen, but done differently Causal norms Ex.) eating pizza for breakfast, people just roll eyes and life goes on Moresimportant roles; Ex.) assault will result in jail Laws rules written down Beliefs what people accept as factual Taboos rules so important we wouldn’t think of it Ex.) cannibalism **we judge importance by the response of society Values general or abstract ideas about what is good and desirable or bad and undesirable in society (loyalty is over disloyalty) Sanctions reactions to actions Positive sanctions thing we do to encourage an individual Ex.) getting an “A”, standing ovation Negative sanctions ways to come down on an individual/discourage them Ex.) dirty look, expulsion, death Informal Sanctionsunofficial responses Things people do to keep people in line Ex.) cold shoulder Formal sanctions official responses Library fees, kicked out of school, jail May not be severe like we think *** Ex.) which is more powerful Being ignored or a speeding ticket Cultural Diffusion culture is shared, and spread to other cultures Subculture groups whose shared values, norms, beliefs set them apart Occupational subcultures (policemen) Religious belief Ethnic heritage You share ideas, and culture but have own beliefs and ideas Some subcultures are short lived (flower child stage) Counterculture subcultures that are perceived to threaten dominant culture Don’t care for dominant culture; reactions show it Try to undermine dominant culture Don’t agree with dominant culture’s values, beliefs, ideas Ex.) biker gang Who We Are We argue that identity is best understood as a combination of statuses and roles Product of social life Organizations are more than just groups of people, they’re social structures; goes beyond statuses and roles The people that fill the positions can change but overall activity is similar Ex.) someone reties/dies, job gets filled, life goes on Social structure set of relatively stable roles or patterned relationships among statuses/positions Ex.) family Statuses position occupied in social structure Doesn’t matter who fills them, all that matters is that position gets filled ** Family statuses, occupational statuses, social class Ascribed & Achieved Ascribed Statuses born into or labeled as Ex.) daughter/son, age, male/female Achieved Statuses things you work for or is accidental Ex.) friend, employee, student Knowledge of social positions helps us know how to interact Not because we think we should treat someone differently (badly or kindly) but because it helps us to know their experience and where the common ground might be Status Symbols artifacts (wedding wings, tattoos) Status is accompanied by certain expectations about how the person may act or expect to be treated Roles sum total expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status/position Status: Professor Status: Rock Star Role: to teach Role: make and sell music Status and roles exist independently of their inhabitants/occupants Role strain when filling one role pulls you in different directions When demands of a role make it difficult to meet requirements Role conflict demands of 2 statuses/ role clash Ex.) role strain or role conflict Students with children – role conflict Student athlete role strain Stereotypes we notice descriptive features and our behaviors are affected by our assumptions and first impressions Power of Groups Who we are is often the result of membership in groups Ex.) Marriage, family, employee We spend our times/lives in groups, not among a random assortment of individuals Social groups individuals with whom we share some sense of identity or common goals and whom we interact with in a specific social structure Ex.) Members of family **group membership extremely important Not all collections of people are groups Some people with common traits are strangers to one another Social aggregate collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time Ex.) People waiting for bus, fans at football game Primary groups small groups whose members share personal, enduring relationships Calculated by long term face to face associations and cooperation More intense; most important **Gemeinschaft relationships Ex.) families, siblings form who we learn social roles Secondary larger, impersonal, formal associations based in common interest or activity Means to ends relationships **Gesellschaft relationships Ex.) worker or student first, then a person, joining a church Social Dynamics the ways in which individuals affect groups and vice versa Groups size affects our attitudes and behaviors Dyad 2 people Very intense; more intense but less stable** Smallest possible social group Ex.) marriage, friendship Triad 3 people More stable because more people; intensity lessens Ex.) Mom, dad, baby ** Number of people changes what happens in social groups **with increased size, the intensity of interaction declines but group is stronger and more stable Reference Groups any group that individuals use as standard for evaluating their own behavior In groups “US” any category or group to which people feel they belong and have a sense of loyalty towards Out groups “THEM” any categories or groups to which people feel they do not belong; degree of antagonism Social groups create boundaries (3 basic strategies) 1. Special titles and symbols a. People in group would recognize, people outside would not 2. Members apply positive stereotypes to ingroups; negative to outgroups 3. Clash with outgroups, which strengthens unity Formal Organizations Formalized organization with relationships between people Band together to achieve some specific goal Specified status positions and role expectations (job descriptions) Ex.) sororities, VFW, sociology club Bureaucracy Component of formal organizations that uses roles and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency Life goes on no matter what happens Ex.) death of person in company, spot gets filled, life goes on Concern modern life becomes increasingly bureaucratic Ideal types (NOT BEST BUT PUREST) Standard against which we can compare Iron cage of bureaucracy We get so trapped by hierarchy, roles, and procedure that we lose sight of the reason/goal Bureaucracy and behavior An individual constrained by their position Institutional discrimination is the adverse treatment of and impact on members of minority groups due to the explicit and implicit rules that regulate behavior Goal Displacement process becomes more important than outcome Ex.) school and testing: did we learn or just a process Anomie: in societies or individuals, a condition of instability resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack of purpose or ideals. Socialization Just replacing people just enough, we need people who can fill positions within the social structure and carry out expected behaviors Values, beliefs, ideas, decision making strategies, and general way in which people live their lives are better explained by social, rather than biological factors; we take for granted Process by which people acquire cultural competencies (learn the characteristics of the group and ways of society) Society perpetuates the fundamental nature of an existing social structure Dynamic (change) process; give and take The social self our sense of self develops out of interactions with others Cooley Looking Glass Based on our perception of how others see us We become selfaware by taking the role of other Does not depend on accurate evaluations Misinterpretations can become part of our selfcontrol Us and combination of outside world create who we are Mead symbolic interaction/ how people interpret things Ability to see ourselves from the outside develops only with social experience Without interaction: cannot develop who we are “I” and “Me” I: self as subject Being yourself Me: self as object Stop and think about how you look to other people; internalizing what they think of you The “who” and “whom” The social self is ongoing interaction between the “me” and “I” Significant others (primary structure) Mom, dad, brothers Set stage for what generalized others think Actual people Generalized others What will “they” think No one in particular: sense of people out there How behavior is created: different stages Imitation: imitate what they say Play stage: play acting what others do First step of stepping in someone else’s shoes Game stage: start predictions, and strategies Understanding roles Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Goffman symbolic ineractionist Dramaturgical analysis—interaction is performance Study of interaction in terms of theatrical performance How do you begin an interaction with someone you know Someone you don’t How do we ensure that people treat us the way we want to be treated Definition of the situation acceptance or not Are we kidding around Declaring the game we are playing *we all work to create definition of situation we are in What we control & not control Expressiveness of the individual involves different types of sign activity Because we all were “acting” we look at what people do involuntarily do “fake it till you make it” (strategy) Act like you’ve been there before Pretend you know whats going on until you actually do Impression management An interaction interaction which occurs throughout any one occasion A performance the activity of a participants which serves to influence other participants Maintaining “face”/saving face Protecting your own interests/image Ex. Something bizarre happens but no one reacts Ex. You trip and then look to save the image Defensive practices We attempt to “save face”/ save our own face Something falls apart, we scramble to put it back together Tact Helping someone recover from a flawed performance (helping someone “save face”); Being considerate Ex. Kids says hes going to the moon tomorrow= you just agree and go along with it Deviance & social control Social contacts connected to deviance Deviance recognized violation of cultural norms; any act people respond negatively Social control attempts by society to regulate thought and behavior; we police ourselves Crime violation of societys formally (written down) enacted criminal law Criminal justice system formal response by official authority to alleged violations of the law **relatively of deviance changes from culture to culture and changes over time Sociological Explanations Definitions and labels are attributable to the organization of society Belief that deviance is tied to social norms and so look for causes outside of the individual Durkheim Social Theories Egoism people are not will integrated into society Lack ties to social groups = higher suicide rates Integrated (married/catholic) = less suicide Anomie normlessness: state wherein society falls to exercise adequate regulation of the goals and desires of individual members Loneliness because youre not connected to people People aren’t policing you; no rules DurkheimFunctions of Deviance Contributes to maintenance and social change If it keeps happening, it must function Criminals represents social enemies; helps us unite Deviance clarifies societys norms and moral boundaries MarxConflict Theory: power & inequality What is labeled as deviant depends on power Ex. Cops speeding Meltonstain theory Structural strain as a cause of deviance **Anomie is built into the structure of a modern society Society and norms don’t fit sometimes Things are structured in a way you just cant do Why were deviant Oldin,ClowardStructure of Opportunity Legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures are unequally distributed in a society Ex. College is legitimate but some cant afford so may turn to dealing drugs/illegitimate Becker Learned Behavior Tries to tell us how we learn to be deviant If you cut off ones opportunities to become anything but deviant, you may be looking at a deviant person Becker/Goffman Labeling Theory Primacy deviance: just happens ex. Skipping school Secondary deviance: adaptations because person labeled you as deviant Ex. Dropping out because of peoples reactions Stratification & Inequality Social stratification: social evaluation (judginess) More OR less of particular qualities that are valued in different societies Ex. Bravery, intelligence, money (more or less) Rankable, most brave, kinda brave, very brave = stratification Qualities we want or value People start in different stratas Start for different reasons, persist for other reasons Systems of inequality/stratification are institutions Traditional way of doing things/traditions Very difficult to change and sit on a set of assumptions that justify them 3 types of stratification 1. Caste systems 2. Estate systems 3. Class systems Caste systems: rank is determined at birth; ascribed statues=born into Determines prestige, occupation, residence, social interactions, relationships Divides: heredity groups, who you can marry and contract Labor Ex. Egypt: rank determines job, group India: hindu; karma: cause and effect of reincarnation Born into varnas: social groups (forever) De Jure – legal/formal segregation De Facto practice/informal segregation Estate Systems Aristocracy/nobility: ascribed Clergy/priests: achieved Serfs peasants/slavery Eventually commoners/backers etc emerged Class Systems Made possible by industrialization Ideally the position you achieve is results of your effort….so inequality is legit because you get what you deserve Ability to move classes Theoretical conceptions of class To understand a personality, beliefs, values, etc, must know where person stands relative to the means of production ways in which something is produced 2 classess Upper class(bourgeoisie): capitalists who owned means of production; make money off owning things Lower class (proletariat): workers who sell their labor make money off working Alienation estrangement or separation Feeling loss of the ability to controls ones own destiny, define relationships with others, connection to human nature, connection to products of own labor, etc.. If you are not a part of mean of production, you aren’t in control of your life Youre not making a complete product; only one part of production False consciousness: way of thinking that prevents a person from recognizing the injustice of their current situation Working class people identifying with class interests that don’t serve them well Ideology of individualism: you end up where you end up based on your effort Faber Gray Areas: reflect not just means your production But market situations: what can your money actually buy you People may be positioned well Ex. Secretaries vs. baseball players: both sell their labor but different market situations Says there is a middle; weird position; gray area Not just money but dynamics of power and status Power: ability to carry out will despite resistance Legitimate power (authority): seen as justified Ex. Police officer: doesn’t have high salary, but high power ** money doesn’t give power Sociologists refer to class as power, education, charisma Social status degree to which a person in a social structure is deffered to Social economic standing (status) SES Money, education, contacts What strata you fall into Chattel slavery moveable property Tag on to other classes While there is inequality in income, there is more inequality in wealth Wealth total value of assets owned minus debt Not just your paycheck: home, car, stock Income amount of money received in wages, salary, investments *Social mobility Open vs. closed : no system is totally open or closed Horizontal: movement between occupation in same strata Vertical: up and down IntERgrational: by different generations intRAgrational: within persons lifetime Structural Mobility changes in social structures Society changes Ex. Industrialized revolution: people go from farms to factories Most mobility has occurred due to the social factors, not individual effort Minority…opposed to dominant Members have significantly less control or power over their lives Less power Often regard themselves as objects of discrimination Ex. Koreans in Korean: can do well, Koreans in Japan: don’t do well Prejudice attitude, prejudging someone Negative judgement on prior experiences Discrimination behavior, treating people different based on attitude Discriminate recognize a distinction, differentiate Individual discrimination people treat other people badly Institutional discrimination policy decisions that intentionally or unintentionally discriminate Ex. Voter policy: must have license Ex. Height requirements for a job Sex & Gender Sex biological characteristics distinguishing male from female Boobs, wiener Primary sex characteristics Gender social characteristics considered appropriate for corresponding sex Attitudes, behaviors, posture Masculinity, feminity Should be the same across cultures Sociologists look on it: Sex differences (biological) VS. Gender differences (Social expectations) What we do it less determined by differential abilities than the contexts within which we are acting Feminine: Dependent, emotional, passive Can overlap with male Masculine: Aggression, success, selfreliant Cant overlap with female; anitfeminine *greater differences among sexes than between them Why do we care so much about a babys gender Gender opens the door to hold a conversations Genders a master status & therefore informative Theoretical Perspectives Functional: how does it function to make society work Biology picks roles Gender is a way of organizing life Conflict: people who are benefiting know they are Difference in power Interaction: gender acquired in interaction Everyone “does” gender everyday Natural differences are often socially achieved Racial & Ethnic Stratification Ethnicity: “shard” cultural heritage Not biological Many constructed in America The social construction of Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups Tied to beliefs about differences in the physical make up of individuals Taxonomies: categories Ex. Caucasion/American/Ethiopian/Asian Race: category of people labeled and treated as similar because of allegedly common biological traits such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape