Granular material, having a density of 1.5 Mg>m3 , is transported on a conveyor belt that slides over the fixed surface, having a coefficient of kinetic friction of mk = 0.3. Operation of the belt is provided by a motor that supplies a torque M to wheel A. The wheel at B is free to turn, and the coefficient of static friction between the wheel at A and the belt is mA = 0.4. If the belt is subjected to a pretension of 300 N when no load is on the belt, determine the greatest volume V of material that is permitted on the belt at any time without allowing the belt to stop. What is the torque M required to drive the belt when it is subjected to this maximum load?
April 12 Explaining influence Using Purpose of communication Inform Entertain Persuade *each is a form of influence & influence is understood Via communication research loads to communication theories* Influence is measured through research- then develops theories All theories are explanations A lot of research, data, experience behind it All humans are theory builders Communication theories - explain communication phenomena *so we do not need to rethink everything every time, we are efficient* - can & should guide message creation - should guide ethical communication Good - Should explain: how to… Ancient theory: Aristole Inartistic proofs (evidence existing outside the message) - Brought into message to strengthen it - Already exist somewhere else Stats Quotes Interviews Artistic proofs (created though the message) - Ethos: credibility/ trust Ex: celeb, uniform, professional looking Credibility - Competence Topic Communicative - Attractiveness Likability - Power Formal Informal Integrity *Ethos is always created through message but never assume it is always established* - Pathos: emotion/ values Ex: stories, inspirational, vivid language, anything sexualized *Easiest way to get people to act is to get them to feel- have corresponding emotions to action- we only stay active when emotion is sustained* - Logos: logic/reasoning: Logic is a subject of reasoning Ex: Experts, Stats, structure of speech (Intro, body, conclusion) *if get ppl thinking then using logos* Pathos & Logos ride on ethos Ethos, Pathos, Logos combined Ex1: Michael Jordan commercial Failure can propel you forward- only if you don’t give up - Statistics Aristotelian Proofs in journalism Ex2: Alexis Khan Pathos coming in through inartistic proof - Voice recording Ethos: parents evidence: dog+ mom’s intuition+ voice recording Artistic & Inartistic proofs in entertainment Ex3: Wisconsin Primaries Pathos: sarcasm/ humor Gets to pathos though logos: contrast of absurdity>> logic= humor - Using bad logos= good pathos (humor highlighted) Contemporary theory - Cognitive dissonance (CD) - Agenda setting (AS) - Framing - Priming - Cultivation CD Cognitive connect: Consonant Dissonant No relationship We seek consonance Reasoning Rationalizing Changing cognitions Changing behavior Persuasive strategy: create dissonance then offer means for restoring consonance We have dissonance as humans we strive to achieve/restore consonance (connection/relationship) CD in action Ex: Children smoking -aggravate dissonance: so why are you smoking Dissonance= can cause psychological pain *Dissonance can be effective persuasive method Ex2: The daily show (skip to 5:00) - Extending the idea of pro-life to (being anti- abortion) and into pro-every life Highlighting a disconnect & creating a connect Communication Theories (cont) -Explaining influence- Agenda setting - Attention implies importance - Amount of coverage - Placement - Repetition *does not tell us what to tell but encourages us to think more about certain topic* - Attention influences what we should think about - Attention enhances perceived topic salience Agenda Setting Theory (The topic= important) - More attention= more we consider important=the more we pay attention Ex: coverage of GOP candidates Agenda Setting Theory (Trump) - Amount of attention - Motivation o coverage But whose agenda is it Media, public, govt Ex: kidnapping, fears, terrorism, concern, Kony 2002, ALS Ice Bucket challenge #Trending= agenda setting Pop culture Agenda Setting- Magazine covers (Cosmopolitan) Are you actually interested Well you should be Framing - Setting parameters of discussion Set limits & draws attention- influences how we interpret - Alter conversations based on what is in or out of frame - Influences how we think about a subject by chanign the way we perceive salient points Ex: setting parameters of discussion: climate change Ex: framing driftgate - Overtly sexual references- judging/ criticizing the masculinity of the New England patriots Boston Herald – Why do they hate us *Anytime you create need to choose lens/ frame- the way in which something will be perceived Ex: political frames, insiders V. Outsiders, Trump, Hillary, Cruz, Kasek, Sanders, frames they have placed upon them & we have laced upon them Priming - Piquing interest - Establishing expectations - Offers interpretive frame before full is presented - Based on the elements highlighted Ex: when harry met Sally (horror mix V original trailer) Priming: music text show, visuals shown, etc.- prepares audience beginning to interpret: setting the mood Cultivation - Assumptions about reality are based on repeated messages (mediated) – growing an attitude - Lived experience overrides mediated ALWAYS - We influence perceptions of reality through depictions of the world around us - Don’t have to b focal point of the message- sideline/ background info - Contributes to perceptions - Began w/ mean world syndrome studies Mean world syndrome (MWS) - Began w studies of news consumers - Higher consumption of news assumed the world was meaner/more dangerous - Not limited to news: ppl who watch more tv: assume the same - Why Driven my conflict (storyline) - And online interactions Cultivation impacts: - Body image/ body acceptance - Perception of unfamiliar processes - The CSI effect: misconstrued definition of beyond a reasonable doubt IRL