Disk D turns with a constant clockwise angular velocity of 30 rad>s. Disk E has a weight of 60 lb and is initially at rest when it is brought into contact with D. Determine the time required for disk E to attain the same angular velocity as disk D. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the two disks is k = 0.3. Neglect the weight of bar BC.
Anthropology, Class 1 Intro - Anthropology is a broad term - “Is this anthropological” YES - two ethnographies this semester - Raising questions about humans - ﬂawed discipline - constant state of reinvention - research methods Four Fields of Anthropology - Within Anthropology, there are radical differences - The primitive and the native leads to misunderstanding - we observe what is made to be observed- how do you get to accuracy and truth when you’re dealing with people (who don’t tell the truth) - Reality vs. Mystique of Anthropology - “The study of human nature, human society, and the human past.” - Overlay past and present, human culture in action - how does place and space show culture - relationship to other disciplines: anthropology tends to cover a broader span of time and range of topics - How humans have changed over time in an evolutionary sense - Sub-Disciplines Biological Anthropology - how are people organisms - What does that mean in our relationship to the natural world and ancient past - How bodies as a reﬂection of our culture and society - Three Major Areas: ⁃ Nonhuman primate ⁃ human evolution ⁃ contemporary human variation Archaeology - Study of “stuff” - Study of the past human cultures through their material remains - Major Areas: ⁃ Prehistoric ⁃ Historical Linguistic Anthropology - Study of communication among humans (not limited to humans) - Three Major Areas: ⁃ Historical linguistics ⁃ Descriptive (or structural) linguistics ⁃ Sociolinguistics - Engaging with social theory - Applied dimensions of work, applying knowledge to the world Cultural Anthropology - Study of living contemporary people and their cultures, the people who are living - Major Areas of Specialization: ⁃ Economic ⁃ Psychological ⁃ Medical ⁃ Political ⁃ Development ⁃ Food Systems Anthropology, Class 2 Applied Anthropology - Involves use or application of anthropological knowledge to help solve social problems - Not technically a separate ﬁeld- integrating different ﬁelds Today’s Class • What makes anthropology unique among the social sciences (science or humanity study) • How do cultural anthropologists conduct research about culture • What does ﬁeldwork involve How has it changed *Hallmark feature, very diverse* MIT Film How do they carry out their ﬁeldwork - Doing things alongside different humans as much as talking to them - getting glimpse into inner lives - how to shuttle between lab and ﬁeldwork - observe, make predictions/develop story about phenomena, then return to test predictions - studying out other people do their jobs, and doing those jobs alongside those people - immersion - personal interest in research topics - gained mutual respect between researchers and those who are being researched Holism/ Holistic Approach: anthropologists are trying to ﬁt together all that is known about human being (pg. 2) culture is integrated and complex; in order to understand one piece, you have to acknowledge the existence of the whole Comparative: anthropologists must consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about what it means to be human (pg. 3) Evolutionary: anthropologists are curious about how we got to be what we are today (pg. 3) There is history, contemporary existence is a recent iteration of human life, therefore what came before is of interest to anthropologists - all anthropologists study culture** - Culture: sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society (pg. 4) - Fieldwork: anthropologist’s personal, long-term experience with a speciﬁc group of people and their way of life (pg. 5) - Pitfalls- becoming too attached emotionally, overriding intellectual non-biased stance; by being present, you can change the dynamics/ context of a situation; how big is the focus- info could be skewed because your speciﬁc group is an outlier; people tell you what you want to hear- want to save their name/reputation How ﬁeldwork/research has evolved - 1870’s- “Armchair” Approach: intensiﬁcation of the Age of Exploration- people going other places for various reasons. Wealthy, white men relying on the information of their missionaries, etc. Detachment - Early 1900’s- “Verandah” Approach: Present in the ﬁeld site, but observing from a place of superiority, not living daily life with people in study - Today- Participant Observation: living with, speaking with, doing activities alongside people whom you are studying- immersion Participant Observation • Learning about culture by living in a culture for an extended period • Bronislaw Malinowski took this approach while studying the people the Trobriand Islands • Key Elements: - Living with the people (informants or participants) - Participating in their everyday life - Learning the language • Still European, still sitting in a place of superiority/ placement- studying “data” or the “native/ primitive” • Etic - data collected according to the outsider researchers’ questions and categories - “deductive”; goal of being able to test or apply a hypothesis - Often emphasizes quantitative data (numbers) • Emic - seeks to understand what insiders say ad understand about their culture, their categories of thinking - “inductive”; not hypothesis-driven - Often emphasizes qualitative data- immeasurable (emotional, stories, narratives, etc.) • Power hierarchies can pose problems when researchers are outsiders from a group of people in question of study, therefore trust has to be built to bridge that gap Early Fieldwork: - to record as much as possible of people’s culture (language, songs, rituals, social life, etc.) because many were disappearing - most research conducted in small, isolated cultures - “arrogant” Changing Methods in a Global, Integrated World: - Larger-scale cultures (more integrated) - Global-local connections - cultural change - “humble/realistic” - Change/ Shift in Power - Shift toward studying personal, local home and community Innovation: Multi-sited Research - Fieldwork conducted on a topic in more than one location - Especially helpful when studying migrant populations and commodity chains (how products move around the world) Is Anthropology a Science - Anthropology has moved… • From Positivism (and a belief in “objective knowledge”) • Through Modernism (which emphasizes that modern= good!) • Through Postmodernism (and critiquing modernist understandings of science and truth) • To an emphasis on Reﬂexivity (and a continuous questioning of our roles and relationships in the ﬁelds) Page 11- Reﬂexive Anthropology - Fieldwork has to be reﬂexive - researchers have to recognize how who they are as individuals affects their research, instead of assuming they are invisible to the people they are studying