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The slender 12-kg bar has a clockwise angular velocity of

Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133951929 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler ISBN: 9780133951929 123

Solution for problem 17-93 Chapter 17

Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics | 14th Edition

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Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133951929 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler

Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics | 14th Edition

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Problem 17-93

The slender 12-kg bar has a clockwise angular velocity of v = 2 rad>s when it is in the position shown. Determine its angular acceleration and the normal reactions of the smooth surface A and B at this instant.

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Friday, February 26, 2016 Multilingualism  Language ideologies surround all multilingual speakers  Languages in the world: o Number of speakers of languages problematic; dying languages o Many world languages spoken by less than a thousand people o Transnational flows of languagemedia technology o No universal accepted definition of dialect vs a language  Max Weinriech: “a language is a dialect with an army and a navy.” (the language separation is mostly because of politics) Politics and Debates – Mutual Relationality  Most nation-states have “official” or “national” languages which seek a standardized form of speech  Oftentimes, the notion of a dialect had connotations of being subaltern, backward, not proper in relation to the “official” one.  Register: “polite language”, “nerd talk”, “girl talk”, “slang” speech genres! o Differences in register directly related to how one is perceived in the world by others. India – A Case of Language(s)  In India, the official language is Hindi with 22 additional nationally recognized languages. o English is the language of the legal system artifact of British colonization.  Official Language Resolution of 1968 o Passed because of India’s enormous ethnic heterogeneity o Stated that “it is the duty of the union to promote the spread of the Hindi language…” o Yet it also states that “…concerted measures should be taken for the full development of these [additional 22] languages.” o When everyone needs to learn Hindi there is a hierarchy creating cultural tensions. o Which language to use was, and still very much is, a major point of ethnic controversy. o Being multilingual, however, is a part of daily life in India.  Many know between 3-5 different languages o What is “official” versus what actually occurs in practice are often in contradistinction to each other  jrrqfcnThis can, and does, lead to social inequalities and the loss of social identity. Class Activity  British accent language ideology makes of thing of serious things. Don Kulikck – Papuan bilingualism  Studied language acquisition and socialization in the Papuan community of Gapun that spoke a native tongue, Taiap, and a lingua franca creole, Tok Pisin.  Children, versus adults, tend to spoke mainly (or sometimes only) in Tok Pisin, to the chagrin of their elders. o Adults claim the children are to blame because they are strong willed and not respective of traditions  Marshall Sahlins: people tend to want to reproduce their social conditions but in the process of doing so, may actually contribute to change. Papuan bilingualism – Theory of Person  Two major cultural concepts regarding theories of person in Gapun: o Hed: the individualistic, egotistic, unbending self (Individualism, feminity, children, negativity)  Taiap o Save: the cooperative, knowledgeable self (Communalism, masculinity, adults, positivity) Tok Pisin  In Gapun, these two concepts both act on the individual, who must mitigate hed in order to cultivate save  Missionary activity changed these structural relations: o The idea of hed came to form a semantic domain with the native languages, Taiap, and “backwardness”, or “barbarity”. o Save came to form the opposite domain, with the newly created Tok Pisin language —from the missionaries —clustered with modernity, Christianity and “goodness” Papuan Bilingualism – Practice  Kulick notes that adults assumed children incapable of language acquisition of retrieval before 18 months of age o Infants speaking a few native Taiap words were displaying their hed —their selfishness  Parents assumed Tok Pisin is easier to speak so when they want young children to pay close attention, they speak Tok Pisin o Cultural norms regarding infant speech made a catch-22 of the native tongue! o Parents unconsciously reinforcing hed/save distinction through language ideologies but in a new linguistic system/structure. o Not cause and effect, it all embedded inside of each otherco- embedded Who Speaks What – Campbell and Grondona  Misión la Paz, Argentina has about 650 Indigenous people speaking 3 languages. o All part of the Matacoan family  Linguistic exogamy occurs, though it is not a socially constructed rule.  Passive bilingualism: speakers speak only one language but understands other speaker’s perfectly fine. o They speak the language they identify with. Identity and Practice  People identify with a single language o Begins around 5 or 6 personal choice o No status conferred to one over the other o Gender, prestige and power not factors in a person’s identification  While claiming to not be able to speak other languages, this is not born our in practice!  History of multilingualism in the area for at least a century, probably longer. o It is not born out of practices Impacts on Linguistic Structure  Interestingly, natives resist lexical borrowing form Spanish or each other, and instead create their own words o Ex. “goat”  “similar to brocket deer”  Another curiosity is that the three languages in MLP appear to be diverging from each other.  Structural differences in syntax and morphology b/w the 3 languages supposes linguistic identity is rigidly guarded. Passive/Dual Multilingualism Universals  This has been observed in some aspects from immigrants to US, Papua New Guinea and the Scandinavian countries.  Aboriginal Australians tend to be multilingual that follow their father’s dialects “patrilects”  Usually, linguistic exogamy involves the wife coming into her husband’s community, and then she earns the local lang.  Vaupes region mentioned! o Social practices explicitly constructed around multilingual practices and ideologies. o Considered incest to practice linguistic endogamy. Monday, March 7, 2016 Differences and Conclusions  MLP differs significantly from universals noted in the text o Multilingual interactions occur in a very one-sided seeking/listening discourse. o Many claim to not speak others, though large evidence to the contrary o Woman in MLP often choose husbandsunusual o Linguistic exogamy not realized as an explicit social practice “just the way it is” narratives  Generalizations about linguistic convergence and universals in language use need to be critically engaged. o There is a lot of human variation o There is not that idea of “universals” Jan Blommaert-Rwanda Political Asylum  Blommaert studies transidiomatic practices in relation to power asymmetries.  Case of “Joseph Mutingira”: o Sought political asylum in Britain after Rwandan genocide o Home Office rejected him on grounds of the language he spoke considered inauthentic o Perception of “national languages” and authentic nationals. Wednesday, March 9, 2016 Recap  Finished Campbell and Grondona: o Universals of linguistic exogamy and multilingual communities criticized o What makes MLP community linguistically and culturally unique  Blommaert and political asylum: recognition of multilingual communities as more the rule than the exception  Non verbal communication intro Gestures and Paralinguistic  Gestures reflect speakers’ thoughts  Gestures can change speakers’ thoughts  Gestures are important features in linguistic acquisition and socialization  Temporal scales” o Moments o Learning language(s) through time o Linguistic change through time Gesture’s Role in Linguistic Processing  Meanings different for gestures and speech: o Gesture:  Global= visual and mimetic imagery; meant to be understood by most people in the world o Speech:  Local= codified words and linguistic structured shared in a speech community; i.e. not recognized universally. Theories on Gesture and meaning in Human Communication Growth Point Theory  Relies on the duality of meaning of gesture and speech  Every utterance contains a globally defined gesture image and a linguistically defined speech structure  How to define “global” Information Packaging Hypothesis  Gestures help contextually by organizing information in a visual-spatial way  Gestures also help speakers organize into segments, or units, that resemble linguistic phenomena. Lexical Gesture process  Words are made easier to understand through gesturing o Lexicon “dictionary”  This process has serious implication for language acquisition. Gesture-as-Simulated Model  A speech act produces a simulation of the action in the speaker’s mind Geertz’s “models of reality”  These simulations activate (unintentionally) motor movements in the nervous system o The body, biologically speaking, seems hardwired for gestural practice. Interface Model  Gestures and speech are separate systems but entangled together in terms of speech acts  Gestures shaped by syntactic structures of one’s speech community  Case Study: English/Turkish Sign Languages o English: manner and path of motion expressed in single clause; in Turkish they are expressed in two separate clauses o English Sign Language uses one motion to express simple actions; Turkish uses two o Different sign languages influenced by different syntaxes of embedded spoken languages. Gesture & Language Comprehension  Studies on gesturing and language learning: o Gestures linking movement create a more accessible environment of learning o Sending/receiving abstract concepts harder to produce through gesture  Gesture are communicative: o They convey contextual information o Reinforce information o Facilitate the learning of new information. Gesture and Early Infancy  Most children use gestures before speaking (of any kind).  How much and what type of gesturing are indicators of later speech acquisition and development  Types of gestures: o Deictic gesture: indexical/indirect relationality  E.g. pointing to an object o Iconic gesture: iconic/direct relationality  E.g. putting index finger on lip o Symbolic gesture: cultural/conventional relationality  E.g. peace sign Stages of Gestural types  Human infants first begin using deictic gestures (8-12 months)  Later in this stage, symbolic gestures can be recognized in an infant’s repertoire  Iconic gestures: large variation across studies o Children begin to use iconic gestures at different times and seemingly for different reasons.  Children combine words/gestures well before they begin to syntactically combine words  Changes in gesturing show a causal change in language learning o Children learn vocabulary that they gesture to most frequently  Most important: gesturing is highly integral to the process of learning/language acquisition Monday, March 14, 2016 Recap  Theories of gestures and relation to communication  Gestures and infancy: pre-language o Diectic (indexical) o Iconic o Symbolic Gesturing and Leaning a Language  Practice ideas, make mistakes produces a learning environment  Amount of variation in gesturing at 14 months mild indicator at vocabulary breadth at 42 months o Now always, however  Generally: parents who gesture more have children who gesture more, who in turn tend to have larger vocabularies later in life. Gesturing and Language Creation  Sign language resembles spoken language because it has segmented, combinatorial forms (their view of language)  However, sign languages do not entirely depend on syntax of spoken language o American vs. British Sign Language  Syntax, morphology, cultural idiosyncrasies o Contrary to popular opinion, SL largely not iconic in its relationalities. Emergent Sign Systems  90% of deaf children born to hearing parents who don’t know a sign language  Homesigns: signs constructed more ad hoc and contextually that, over time, begin to form its own syntax and morphology. Emergent Sign Systems: NSL  In the late 1970’s and early 80’s deaf Nicaraguans began to organize independent outreach programs  No one had sign language: each had their own colloquial system of gestures/signs  Nicaraguan Sign Language grew out of a heterogeneous and dispersed group of people to form a new and emerging speech community. o Homesigns carried over to produce a completely new Sign Language that was officially adopted by the state o Still changing to this day Gesturing and Hearing Adults  Multilingual group study: o English, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish speakers o Could not use speech, had to use gestural signs. o Could express simplistic ideas, not abstract ones o Curiously: SOV word order emerged even if underlying language is not! Gestures and the Deaf  Deaf signers do gesture when they use sign language  Deaf children produce as many gestures as hearing children  Deaf children who gestured more frequently tended to succeed better at instructional tasks than those who gesture rarely. Corbalis and Gesture  Gesturing was the foundation of speech  Looks at evolutionary biology to determine how and when speech/language came about. Mirror Neurons  Giacomo Rizzolatti et al. studied neural activity in the brains of monkeys.  Specific brain area activates neurons when the monkey intentionally grasps for something  ALSO activate when the monkey see another doing the same movement “mirror”  The are in the monkeys’ brains corresponds to the location in the human brain called the Broca’s Area major language center of brain  In both monkeys and humans, this area simultaneously sends signals to certain motor functions when gesturing or speaking o Impossible to speak without gesturing, it is instinctual  We perceive speech not through acoustics but through how we ourselves would do it. Evolutionary History  Early human gesturing heavily reliant on facial gestures evolution of facial bones provided better muscle control over facial articulation  Vocal tract changed when hominin species began to walk fully upright allowed greater variation in sound production  Extra muscles surrounding lungs gave more power to producing sounds. Gestures are pre-language for Corbalis Genetics History – FOXP2  Needed for normal speech production in humans o Found in most animals songbird testing  Genetic studies believe the gene mutated specially for human between 38-45 kya  Breeding with Neanderthal also have us a more microcephalingene regulating brain size (bigger) Corbalis Answers, “Why”  Utilitarian thing o Spatial Reach o Freeing the hands o Diversity and the “Language Fortress” Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Myths of Sign Language  Sign languages are universal o Like spoken languages, depends on numerous factors that explain variation  Sign languages are same language as one that is spoken “just done with the hands” o Small grammatical relationships to spoken languages i. Word order (SVO, SOV, etc.)  Changes occur via other sign languages, not other spoken languages. Sign Language and Written Language  Written language enters sign language through iconicity”fingerspelling”.  No universal fingerspelling alphabets o E.g. USA and Europe use one-handed fingerspelling  UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand use a two-handed approach Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization  Three major levels of social scale that are NOT mutually exclusive: o Deaf community: largest scaleanyone who is interested in deaf issues. o Deaf culture: deaf and hearing peoples who follow semi- conventional rules of behavior o d/Deaf ethnicity: birthright important; can be deaf or born into a deaf family  Lower case “deaf” vs uppercase “Deaf” one of ethnic social ties.  Binary opposition of deaf/hearing in USA not universal either multiple variations.  Variation arises from: geography, race, gender, ethnicity o Sign for “birthday” different even in the USA depending on region! o In Ireland, elderly deaf signers educated in gendered classroom settingsproduced gendered variation of Irish Sign Language Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization, final  Sign language, just like spoken language, is a practiced phenomenon that gives a certain model of reality to its user and at the same time socializes a person in a particular way Language in the 21st Century Pre-Internet history  16 Century EuropeRenaissance o Systematic classification & mathematics  Imperialism o Bacon “knowledge is power” o Word collection(s) o Need to archive and understand Renaissance  Three main innovations from Renaissance: o Library o Index o Article/Encyclopedia Library, Encyclopedia, Knowledge  Library initially good, but spatially exclusive  French philosophers recognized problemcreated encyclopedia  Encyclopedia: o Massive but no complete o Slowly updated. Index Cards th  Paul Otlet – late 19 C  Created pre-Dewey Decimal System  Created archival sciences Derrida & “Archive Fever”  The “compulsive, repetitive, and nostalgic desire for the archive, an irrepressible desire to return to the origin, a homesickness, a nostalgia for return to the most archaic place of absolute commencement”  Freudian psychology – “death drive”  Dual opposition of archive theory vs. archive practice o What is sough tot do versus what it actually did. Friday, March 18, 2016 Poe’s Theory of the Internet  Altered social practices and the cultures in which it is embedded  Produced a distinct “internet” culture of its own  Aspects of Experience What “Pulled the Internet  Who/what pulled the internet into this current practiced  3 Major Forces of Pull: o Industrial capitalism  Productivity decreased with larger bureaucracy  R&D technology development protected by intellectual property rightsmoney!  PCs primary pulling device of companies o The State  Welfare State  Keeping tack of millions  State surveillance  Govt. already pit in millions, might as well fully use it o Cultural shifts (post 60’s)  Mass expression of individualism  The “good life” should be pursuit of personal happiness  Pornography explosion, desire to express feelings (blogs, Friendster, MySpace, IM) Human Nature () & the Internet  Poe believes “people were ready” for the Internet to emerge as it is today  Anomalies and Puzzle-Solving  “A book takes out on a trip from here to there; the Internet takes you on a trip from here to God-knows-where” Internet Culture  It will: o Spread further and wider o Be used for pleasure o Link the past with the present through language o Create social groups and communities o Save everything, making is both knowledgeable yet also vulnerable. Social Networking Sites (SNS) – Culture & Language  Anthropology and SNS in general: o Tension in anthropology over discussion of internet and its effects o Traditionally linked with small-scale societies: global reach o SNS challenges old dichotomies: neighborhood vs. network, family vs peers, public vs. private o Miller: internet now a new form of social networking but an unconscious attempt to return to old forms of social construction. Past SNS Studies  Popularity of sites like Facebook were not “inevitable” but a reflection of desiring similarity yet uniqueness.  People have begun compiling their lives archive fever; self- aggrandizement of the individual  Most studies have yet to prove or disprove the importance of SNS. Comparative Anthropology of SNS  Cultural relativism: o Cultures may change but also localize global processes and institutions o East Adian SNS:  CyWorld in S. Korea organized to reflect Korean custom of viewing kin relations in center/periphery relations.  Aesthetically of these SNS made to look “cute” distance from the coldness of technology. o Broadbent: “attention” protocols: different cultures have a spectrum of acceptable linguistic action.  Philippines high immediacy of answering vs. UK  USA Tales From Facebook: Globalization  Looked at Trinidad discourse on Facebook  Trinidad culture already geared towards a practice of intense and explicit social scrutiny o They were “ready” for Facebook  Believe the “truth” of a person is found not in the physical self, but the virtual one. o Word for “hanging out” —liming— now encompasses spending social time online o Globalization does not simply destroy culture it is more a process of change  Localized ways of speaking and doing take global social phenomena and re-cast them culturally. Trolls Just Want to Have Fun – Buckels et al.  Trolling: the practice of behaving in a deceptive, destructive, or disruptive manner in a social setting on the internet with no apparent instrumental purpose.  Dark Tetrad personality traits detected in trolling activities: o Narcissism, Machiavellianism (authoritarianism/manipulative), psychopathy, sadism.  Study: 418 participants from the US, two studies reported trolling tendencies and behavior types. Testing through Language  Participants given large questionnaires with the “key questions” scattered about o Language attributed to one of the Dark Tetrad provided index for researchers. o E.g. “I have been compared to famous people” or “It’s not wise to tell your secrets”. o Internet activities (like debating, shopping, commenting, trolling, etc.) ranked and use were also asked.  First Study: showed correlation between people with highest Dark Tetrad attributes and those who listed trolling as favorite internet pastime  Second Study: showed correlation between frequency of commenting and Dark Tetrad, especially narcissism in online debating. Discussion  Sadism was the biggest indicator of positive views of trolling and the Dark Tetrad trolls defined largely through sadistic impulses.  Trolling behaviors and practices ultimately indexed through the psychological need to harm  Among the “trolls” identified in the study, the frequency of enjoying trolling was directly linked to identity it was almost necessary for these people to practice trolling.  Technology use and anti-sociality o Anonymous aspects of the internet help antisocial people express their dark tetrad personalities Monday, March 21, 2016 Recap  History of the relationship between humans and information storage devices.  Human nature: tend to classify and organize the world around us.  Internet speech practices of trolling and online identity. Analysis of Discourse of Trolling – Merritt  Trolling: a genre of internet practice; notes their links to “antisocial behavior” but instead sees them as “purposeful” and “complex”  Trolling vs. flaming: she sees what is popularly constructed as “trolling” as something else “flaming” or setting metaphoric fires on message boards/comments sections  Discourse Analysis used on the site reddit.com  She asks: how can we label practice “disruptive” if we do not stablish what is being “disrupted” Questioning the Normative “Troll”  Critical of the normal way people see trolling what measures “annoyance” or “anger” and how can we measure why someone trolls at a particular time  Problems with intentionality: are trolls really seeking just to troll or is it failure of communication Different personality types not syncing  Temporal scale: o Once a troll, always a troll o Is there a line that is crossed to turn into a troll Results  Paralinguistics played large role in discourse! o Different than in spoken language o Yelling, sarcasm, etc. conveyed through these paralinguistics signs  Noticed those who troll tend to construct a persona, or sometimes devil’s advocate role. o Social language: what she calls different languages and dialects based on culture  Trolling is “a genre of communication that poses a challenge to identify”  The threat of being trolled way even serve to socialize Internet users in certain communities into what is appropriate online communication Paralinguistics ALL CAPS, , I’m great.  Trolls weren’t related to anti-social behavior but they are not doing it just to be mean but they were trying to construct something but they couldn’t find a way how to. It is an internet practice Gender, Language and Power Performative Roles – Gender vs. Sex  All cultures have gendered predispositions  Judith Butler: o Borrowed from Foucault’s idea of discourse and power o Holds that gender is performative: not something to have but something to do  “Sex” considered biological: o Between 1 in 30k to 1 in 1k born “intersexed” o Current medical practices: is sex truly “natural”  Foucault & “discourse” Linguistic Anthropology & Gender  Gender is learned o Socialized  Gender is collaborative o Constructed through personal and social contexts  Gender is practiced (Bordieu) and performed (Geertz) o Ochs: “indexed gender”  Practice indexes genders  Western Samoa vs. United States  Gender is power Markedness  From linguistics: o “unmarked”: dominant default from(s) o “marked” is the irregular from(s) o Gender: male = unmarked, female = marked  Grammatical markedness: some grammars unconsciously divide world into a faulty opposition o Masculine generic pronouns (e.g. English & Spanish)  Los hombres piensan  Male/Female  Man/Woman o Semantic domain of “gentleman’s skills/activities”  Amalia Sa’ar’s study of Israeli linguistic practices: o Studied Hebrew and Arabic speaking women from different economic positions o Hebrew fashion designer & Palestinian elderly woman same language family o Both languages use masculine generic pronouns.  Some thought it would professionally help, others didn’t notice it at all until pointed out!  No simple direct relationality between grammatical and cultural genders. Early Gender Studies  Studies assumed categorical differences  Language myths that still persist: o Competitive vs. cooperative o Silent vs. talkative  These differences were never proven: considered true from the start! Late Gender Studies  Janet Hyde: Gender Similarities Hypothesis o Early gender studies perpetuate dangerous myths [“talkativeness”] o Meta-analysis indicated negligible, or NO, difference in terms of behaviors o Problems with the meta-analysis’ data o Later meta-analysis: boys talked more  Gender studies focused more on how identities emerged through time: o Embodiment theory: mind/body is a faulty opposition o Experience captured through body, not generated form mind o Mind does not trump body: they are co-present in any experiential phenomena. Either vice versa, it is all co-embedded. Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Recap Gender is:  Performed  Cultural  Relational  Collaborative/Competitive  Power  Marked/Unmarked depends on which flavor! Embodiment Theory  Philosophy in social and behavioral sciences emphasizing the body in the production of human thought  Lakoff and Johnson: o We define our world metaphorically to our bodies o E.g. work/love/life often defined as a journey of sorts  Sexuality bound up not just as our own subjective thoughts (mind) but also our habitus (cultural practices). o Cultural plays both subtle and active roles in constructing our theories of person and body  Recursive phenomena: o Information comes in through perceptual systems (senses) mind interprets according to theory of person/habitus/cultureactionreactionmore perceptual information  so on. “Talkativeness”  Matthias Mehl et al.: studied over 400 college students and words spoken. o F= 16,215 words/day o M=15, 669 words/day  Large individual differences around the average due to individuals’ habitus and daily practice “Competition vs. Cooperation”  Marjorie Goodwin: studied African American and racially mixed children’s speech behaviors across U.S. o Focus was on girls and their interactions in school  Certain activities had cooperative language involved  “He-Said-She-Said” moments: highly competitive linguistic techniques same as boys   more to do with societal structures than linguistic structures Eckert — “Cooperative Competition”  Notes a theory of person in US culture: o Men’s power based on public economic accumulation o Women’s power based on domestic capabilities that are inherently indexical to men’s power  Because of this indexicality, women’s repertoires are more status- bound, NOT status-conscious Eckert — Symbolic Capital  From Bourdieu: capital in the form of social prestige (not purely economic). o Goodwin: men/women symbolic capital o Women must justify status through relationships, not professional performance   “Girl talk” is a linguistic force for women to increase competitive edge Eckert — Dialogic Interactions  Being “popular” a defining system of thought concerning language in high schools.  What occurred: o Interview/discussion among 6 African American girls entering senior year of HS o Competitive attitudes over self-presentation (popularity) vs. likability o Defining what is even “popular” o A small competition arose between two groups: “popular” and “non-mainstream” Eckert — Results  At the end of the conversation, several issues of status and gender were settled between the different girls: o Girls reached consensus on importance of independence o “Shaky” consensus: religion  Whether there was consensus or not, girls’ discussion an indexical speech event to larger societal structures. o However: provided a means of discussing and forming own opinions outside normative bounds. Monday, March 28, 2016 Symbolic Capital Distribution of social prestige. Kim Kardashian has a lot of capital on her Instagram and Twitter. Anger, Gender, Language Shift — Kulick  Axiom: any discourse/thought/norm about emotion is implicitly also about gender  Two speech genres analyzed to understand how discourses of gender, knowledge and being reinforce each other through linguistic practice. Language Ideology  Kros: “anger”; it is culturally stereotypically feminine  “Men’s oratories”: spoken in or around men’s house; o Downplay conflict and reframed disputes to achieve harmony  Local knowledge semantically bound to ideas of danger and hazard e.g. magic chants, agriculture, men’s cults o Their language likewise privileges ambiguity with hidden meanings. Anger  Anger is linked with danger  having angry thoughts produces a “rot” within a person  If anger is voiced or acted on, ancestral spirits sought to correct negative behavior o Correct their hed social being  Women stereotyped as practitioners of kros o Self-fulfilling prophecy internalized but not explicitly. Anger and Orality  Oratories considered a male-only practice  When men discuss anger explicitly, it is indexical to negatively perceived phenomena o The anger must be “revealed” to correct the cosmic imbalance with the ancestors.  Men re-contextualized speech in a socially “proper way” to downplay that there is even a problem. Relationality of: Men, Women, Anger  Women publicly display their kros without re-concealing it through proper language practice  Anger exposes a rot into village life that could potentially disrupt ancestral happenings.  Men and women’s practices of anger are inverted: o Within private dwellings/within public men’s houses. o Oratories are sympathetic constructions/kroses are accusative declarations. Language Shift/Death  Symbolic relationships and linguistics practices re-enforce ideas of hed, kros, femininity and Taiap  Ways of talking about modernity and creating a better modern village use Tok Pisin terms and syntactical rules.  Old language faces extinction Race, Ethnicity and Language Defining Race  Jane Hill’s “folk theory of race” o Basic category of biology in which people fit AAA: physical traits inherited independently  “There facts render any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations both arbitrary and subjective.” Defining Race — Beginnings of Color  Blumenback in the late 1700’s  Formulated 5 different races of the world based on craniometry  Believed in mono-genist “degeneration” theory  Color typology to racial theory  still in use today!  “Race” as a concept is real, but as biological reality, remains to be seen  Race should be viewed as cultural perceptions of others a theory of person for Other subjects  Example: “whiteness” o Many groups now considered white were not always o Irish, Germans, Italians, etc. o Franklin: “swarthy” Swedes Race through Time  “Race” is a concept: fluid and changeable through time  Sarah Hengen: o Research in Nepal o Mongol National Organization (MNO) o Tried to fight ruling religious casts using outdated racial typology o Recast national and ethnicities, even though not technically true. Wednesday, March 30, 2016 Recap  Covered anger, gender and language in Gapun  Defining race o Variation vs. explanation o Does “one trait [looks] rule them all”  No Race vs. Ethnicity  Some researchers critically split “race” and “ETHNICITY”  Bonnie Urciuoli: o Research on NYC Puerto Rican community o Racial discourses: “frame group origin in natural terms” o Ethnic discourses: “frame group origin in cultural terms” o Racialized people considered dangerous, disorderly, chaotic o Ethnic people considered quaint, safe, orderly. o Speaking with an accent linguistically marks someone as dangerous, disorderly, unsafe. African American English (AAE)  Linguistic system with rules governing: morphology, phonology, syntax.  Presence of geographic dialects and absencelinguistic variation!  Many can code-switch between linguistic registers to fit social context  Scholars still disagree on statues of AAE as language or dialect o No matter what: has as much systematicity as other languages. Some Major Grammar/Rules of AAE  Invariant or habitual “be” o “He be singing” vs “He is always singing”  Copula deletion o “She happy” vs. “She is happy”  Double negatives o “I can’t not go out tonight” vs. “I can go out tonight” o Anglo-Saxon bias: “rationality”, mathematics, modernization.  Reduction of final consonants o Rule!: voiced and voiceless finals o Final consonant dropped only if preceded by a voiced consonant.  Dump, belt, sink vs. ol’ (old), lef’ (left)  “Ask” vs. “Aks” o Popularity considered to be the worst of errors by AAE speakers. o History happening for centuries in England o England:  Didn’t historically index blackness  Came to represent lower social classes after Revolution  Speaking differently is not tied to cognitive competency!  does not index intelligence, just difference. Racism in Linguistic Practice  Queer theory and racism: racist ideas can emerge in conversation/practice  Valentina Pagliai: o Research how people react to racist comments in conversation  Recorded conversations about immigrants in barber shop in Tuscany, Italy. o Spiral effect: “occurs because when speakers receive a positive reception for their mildly negative comments, they are emboldened to make more blatantly negative and eventually outright racist remarks. Racism, Language Ideologies, Practice  Psychosomatic tendencies of race and learning  Ruben and Smith conducted match-guise tests in a classroom setting: o 4-minute lecture recorded by a white woman o Half class shown video of her with her voice, other half shown video of East Asian woman with original white woman’s voice o Students in Asian group tended to report the woman had an accent and did worse on comprehension of lecture materials. Ebonics, Language and Power – Long  The role of “ebonics” in U.S. educational system  Coined by Robert Williams in a 1973 conference: o “refers to the study of the language of black people in all its cultural uniqueness.”  Linguistic studies in AAE: o Classroom practices and language ideologiesasymmetric dualism Language and Social Identity  AAE not a marker of “blackness” variation and cross-ethic diffusion. o Southeast Asian, Hawaiians, working-class white and Latino  Symbolic relationality: resistance o Suppression of Hawaiian o Suppression of Basque in fascist Spain  AAE language ideology, emic perspective: resistive politics to perceived eradication, or at least, change of identity. Oakland School Board Resolution  Flashpoint of “linguicism” came in 1997 in Oakland, California o 53% of student K-12 population was black, with 47% Asian & Latino, less than 1% white.  Oakland School Board attempted to rectify terrible conditions  teach classes in a different register  It was NOT to “teach Ebonics”, BUT to help facilitate learning to increase language skills and others. Reactions  Support from the Linguistic Society of America met in Chicago to specially address this issue  Department of Education rejected the proposal based on linguistic grounds  AAE not a “separate language”  Even popular black culturalists — Maya Angelou and Jesse Jackson — condemned the proposal, while less popular black figures’ opinions marginalized. Reactions and New Relationship  Oakland proposal became platform for larger “English-only” movement. o Other languages (mainly Spanish) also demonized alongside AAE  Oakland School Board Reaction: o Re-stated that AAE had limited genetic relationship to West African languages (correct) o Stated it is not a dialect of English (incorrect) o Stated ultimately goal was to impart Standard English on the Students. Nature vs. Nurture & Education  Follows Chomsky’s view of language as innately cognitive and universal o But, also sees the “language environment” as pivotal in formulating social identity  Certain access to power is predicated in language: o Submersion: standard dialect in classrooms o Assimilation: collects subaltern communities together to create uniformity o Immersion: programs designed to immerse one in a language and its ideologies. Conclusions and Questions  Bilingual education programs see huge results (Hawaii’s KEEP program, Canada’s French program) o Learning-in-general and learning a language in particular share the same problems  National unity discourses often downplay or outright try to destroy linguistic diversity in the sake of security  Long’s proposition if the world is only going to increase in its multi- cultural and multi-linguistic state, how do we deal with this in an educational setting Friday, April 1, 2016 Recap  Spiral effect case study: Italian barber shop talk about immigrants  Ruben and Smith case study: white female voice over on East Asian female actor  Oakland School Board Resolution o 1997 Ebonics controversy o Teaching in vernacular o What were they attempting to do/not do RSA Animate: Language as a Window into Human Nature  Indirect Speech Act Veiling  Relationship Types (x3) o Dominance (Hierarchy in primates) o Communality (Share & share alike (kin selection and mutualism) o Reciprocity (Exchanges of good and services, reciprocal altruism) – Two ways  Mutual Knowledge Shared understanding, we are all in the same page. Language has to convey some content and it has to negotiate a relationship type the solution is to use language at 2 levels Innuendos provide individual knowledge and direct speech provides mutual knowledge. “Word-Sound-Power”: Rastafarian Cosmology  Rastafarianism: not what you think it is o Syncretic Christian and West African religious system that began in Jamaica o Believe Haile Salassei, last Ethiopian monarch, was the next Christian Messiah o Millenarian movement00> bring about a new age for African diasporic peoples around the world. Historical Context(s)  Jamaica was the crown jewel of British Caribbean landholdings o Both plantation owners and newly imported African slaves spoke the local dialect o British political elites in Jamaica still held language ideology of British accent as “normal”  In the 1930’s mass political unrest against British domination began with street preachers. o Pan-African Movement in the 60s and 70s catapulted mutual knowledge of black suppression across the globe. Rastafarian Morpho-Syntax  Morpho-syntactics: how a language constructs its words ans sentences  Context of communication: o Part of “speaking Rastafarian” is not in the language itself, but in what context it is found in. o i.e. it is about its practice in reference to word construction o Rastafarian speech explicitly deconstructs English and African words are re-arranges them.  Word-sound-power is: o Linguistic construct that expresses local ideas of identity, agency and speech. o Theory of person! Research and Method  Interviewed “Bongo”, a Jamaican man in the late 60’s who recently became “Dread” but famous for good oratory skills.  Because English was language of subjugators, it is purposefully “busted” to show resistive practices  “Up” fill morphologies: o Any word with a prefix that had symbolic similarities to negative things were overtly changed to create a positive relationship  Example: English word “dedicate” —pronounced “DEAD- icate — is changed to “livicate”  Example: English word “oppression” begins with an “o” — linked with word “over” and power over — is changed to “down-press” Word-World Production  Up-fill morphology defining characteristic of Rastafarian linguistics and identity  Histories of oppression linguistically renegotiated and resisted  The world-sound-power of Rastafarian speech further promotes their world view of a Pan-African religious unifier

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Chapter 17, Problem 17-93 is Solved
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Textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics
Edition: 14
Author: Russell C. Hibbeler
ISBN: 9780133951929

Since the solution to 17-93 from 17 chapter was answered, more than 883 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “The slender 12-kg bar has a clockwise angular velocity of v = 2 rad>s when it is in the position shown. Determine its angular acceleration and the normal reactions of the smooth surface A and B at this instant.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 39 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: angular, position, bar, clockwise, determine. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 2358 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics , edition: 14. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 17-93 from chapter: 17 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/10/17, 05:20PM. Engineering Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780133951929.

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The slender 12-kg bar has a clockwise angular velocity of