Sketch a rough graph of the yield of a crop as a function of the amount of fertilizer used.
Exam 2 Fairy Tales of Germany Same format as first midterm (short answers and one short essay). Similar length. Tales to Study: The Magic Table, the Gold Donkey, and the Club in the Sack; Bearskin; How Six Made Their Way in the World; The Brave Little Tailor; The Master Thief; Thumbling; Brother Lustig; Iron Hans; The Blue Light; Hans My Hedgehog; The Bremen Town Musicians; Old Sultan. Also be familiar with the Hans Christian Andersen tales we read. Review Jack Zipes, From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, chapters 3, 4, 5, and 10. The Forest a place where characters lose and find themselves. The forest possesses the power to change lives and alter destinies. A place where everyone is equal Taylor and Rebel analyze Grimm tales the Grimm tales give more insight into the lives of common folk than we give them credit for shows cultural change of when youngest daughter was newly allowed to inherit property and maintain it in the family’s interests Tales demonstrate the negative social conditions of the early 19 century It is important to understand that the tales retold by the Grimms were collected, merged with other versions of the same tale, and altered by themselves The forest is a place where enchantment and disenchantment takes place a place where society’s conventions no longer hold true a place where social wrongs can be righted In 1813, the Grimm’s published a journal called “Old German Forests” contained the origin and essential truth about German customs, laws, and culture. Grimms thought that the volk, the people bounded by a common language but disunited, needed to enter the old German forests to gain a sense of their heritage and to strengthen the ties among themselves The act of the Grimms collecting tales = creation of an “enchanted forest” – an attempt to seek German truths Fairy Tale is a narrative work of fiction in that it is complete in itself Since it is transmitted, it is conservative Contains typical figures, properties, situations, and aspects of action that serve the portrayal of how conflicts are solved on the basis of fixed moral notions Conflict is an important component to the fairy tale genre Solutions are often modified to fit the moral viewpoint of the Grimms (modified to their own principles) Whenever Grimms collected several versions of the same tale type, they would either combine these versions into one or alter the best of the versions creating their own synthetic tale To reveal customary behavior and enable readers to learn about general folk attitudes and draw conclusions about the right way to behave in given circumstances Soldiers: High percentage of soldier tales by the Grimms most likely result of the Napoleonic wars and the increase of soldiers as a profession in europe Soldiers were usually peasants or lower class individuals o Money (even though it was not much) and the threat of punishment kept soldiers in the army o Grimms tales depict this dissatisfaction of soldiers within these tales Solders are fearless o As they are characters that have nothing to lose In soldier tales, a soldier’s integrity must be tested, and often the forest plays a role in determining his destiny, for it is here that the soldier is not only tempted by evil forces but also given an equal chance to be recognized Tales almost always begin post war, or soldier being discharged Traits of a soldier: o Fearless o Cunning o Virtuous o Generous o Honest o Opportunistic o Ambitious Grimms indicate sympathy for the social conditions of soldiers and the need to improve their treatment, both in the army and in society Women in Soldier Tales: Women were rarely encouraged to assume active roles in determining their destinies Soldiers, as men, are expected to become socially useful and fight for their goals Heroines are generally portrayed as domestic figures or figures who need domestication Heroes are generally adventurers who need experience and a touch of respectability to become successful as public figures Soldier tales reflect the 19th century patriarchal notions about gender roles that the Grimms shared with their society: the male hero must prove himself by asserting himself and showing through his behavior to what extent he is graced by God Tailors: The profession of tailoring had not been highly regarded because it did not demand much skill or material One did not have to be exceptionally strong, so that the weaker sons were generally apprenticed to master tailors There were so many tailors, a tailor’s life was often one of poverty Underlying attitude in Grimms’ tales towards tailors: The tailor is not to be trusted, He is boastful, tricky, and sly. There are also the good souls, industrious tailors who uphold the good name of their craft and demonstrate that they can do solid work. Yet whether the tailor be cunning, carefree, or hardworking, he is more often than not portrayed as a wanderer, someone in search of a better situation than tailoring Almost all tales begin with the tailor either on his journey or about to set out on a journey o Bad tailors: Usually the drunk or murderer Arrogant and lacks compassion Disregards the rights of his fellow human beings o Good tailors: Cunning, but also compassionate Hardworking Generous Brave Searching for a secure place in society and must prove he is worthy to meet society’s demands and win this place Usually become a king or gets rich because he makes the best of his talents Forests in tailor tales: a place where he is given a chance to change and where his fate is decided Soldier and Tailor tales demonstrate a willingness to rectify social injustices What are the main traits exhibited by men in the Grimms’ fairy tales What are the main reasons for the emphasis on these traits in the Grimms’ collection In what respects did the Grimms see themselves in their male characters How did the Grimms’ 1857 edition of their tales tend to portray professions and occupations such as soldiers, tailors, and thieves, or figures such as Thumbling and “monstrous” characters What are the sociohistorical reasons for these portrayals What are the main intellectual challenges we face when we try to determine the sociohistorical background to these portrayals men in the Grimms’ tales are confident, resourceful, and fearless also aggressive, handsome, wealthy, powerful = good for man coming from “poor” background, but with hard work you can make it to the top (that is what the Grimms did men can also be cunning in soldier tales and tales of monstrous births etc. men are not punished much, if at all, for tricking people and lying, while women are The brothers Grimm saw themselves in the male characters because they are sort of like underdogs that worked very hard and got to where they wanted to be. They were the caretakers of their family because they were the oldest and they were male. In their tales, strong men have to take care of women and children or of kingdoms. soldiers, tailors, thieves, “monsters” are outsiders and of no use in the tales soldiers discharged and misfits in society, tailors are poor and not well thought of, thieves are seen as bad people, and “monsters” just do not fit in Study the forest as a metaphor in the Grimms’ tales; the solution of conflicts in the tales; social issues and the theme of justice; the bourgeois entrepreneurial spirit; the role of cunning; and portrayals of magic. See page numbers above for Zipes, chaps. 3 and 4. it is a place where one can right a social wrong, escape social conventions, can change fate, where one loses and finds himself also used by Grimms with regards to German nationalism and unity. They thought German speakers should go into the old German forests to find some feeling of German unity What are the main thematic and stylistic differences between the Grimms’ tales and the tales of Hans Christian Andersen Grimm Tales: multiple voices in the tales cause for a less successful flow main point is that obedience is good and to teach children to be good bad guys get punished harshly more fairytale world like, not realistic more archetypical characters no irony in the tales Hans Christian Andersen tales: One voice and better flow violence, but not just to show that being bad will have consequences not only bad guys get bad endings far harsher world, more realistic more complex characters, less archetypical irony in the tales Why is it that German culture has been particularly drawn to the fairy tale as a literary genre institutionalized, in Germany, by the Grimms How were the Grimms’ fairy tales received at different times in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries (including Nazi Germany; the immediate postwar period; postwar East Germany; postwar West Germany) To what extent were the Grimms nationalists, and how does their nationalism differ from that of the Nazis in the Third Reich See Zipes, chap. 10, pp.231234, 255258, and 265266.