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Solved: Determine the force in each member of the Pratt

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler ISBN: 9780133918922 126

Solution for problem 6-11 Chapter 6

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Problem 6-11

Determine the force in each member of the Pratt truss, and state if the members are in tension or compression. A B C D E F G H I J K L 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m 10 kN 10 kN 20 kN 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m Prob. 611

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© Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 3/7 Lecture Notes: Smart and Kant 1. Smart: 1920—2012 a. What he is i. Ethics: Utilitarian (extreme utilitarian aka Act utilitarian) ii. Metaphysics: Australian realism ( iii. Epistemology: empiricist b. Utilitarianism = the doctrine that the rightness of actions is to be judged by their consequences (pg 78)—2 kinds i. Extreme utilitarianism = act utilitarianism = type of utilitarianism that assesses particular (individual) actions 1. Extreme utilitarians always want to operate under the universal moral principle 2. Will only use smaller moral rules (rules of thumb) in 2 circumstances a. When we don’t have time to do Felicitic calculus b. When we have a personal bias that may sway our calculations 3. Maximize the choice to help the maximum amount of people ii. Restricted utilitarianism = rule utilitarianism = type of utilitarianism that assesses classes (groups) of actions 1. Use smaller moral rules that apply to each class of actions 2. “actions are tested by rules and rules are tested by consequences” a. Will only stray from smaller moral rules in 2 circumstances i. When there’s no rule for the given case/action ii. When the action falls under 2 different rules: one that promotes it and one that condemns it 1. In these 2 cases I would have to assess the consequences of that specific action by using the universal moral principle or principle of utility 3. Shouldn’t ever break the rules and if you do then its bad c. Example 1 from text i. Man jumps in water to save drowning person 1. Utility of action: a. Act utilitarians think it’s good b. Rule utilitarians think it’s good ii. It is found that the man in the water is actually Hitler 1. Utility of praise/blame a. Act utilitarians think it’s bad b. Rule utilitarians still think it’s good d. Criticisms of Rule Utilitarians i. Can’t tell the difference between the utility of action and utility of praise/blame action ii. Choices for action are restricted iii. Superstitious rule worship and irrational 1. They’re irrational because rules are indications of possible actions, not guarantees that people will follow the rules e. Benefits of Extreme Utilitarians i. Can tell the difference between the utility (usefulness) of the action and the utility of the praising or condemning of the action © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 ii. Gives you more choices in terms of action f. Example 2 from text i. 2 men are stranded on an island. 1 man tells the other to give his millions to the country club when he gets saved. ii. Man wants to give it to the hospital instead to maximize consequence because they’ll do more with it 1. Extreme: would give to hospital 2. Restricted: would still give to country club 2. Immanuel Kant (1724—1804) a. General info i. Born in Konigsberg, East Prussia ii. Grew up and was educated in the Pietist (evangelical Lutheran) tradition (8—15 yrs) 1. Promoted emotional introspection but Kant protested against it iii. Later philosophy reacts against his childhood and focuses on rationality and will (autonomy) iv. Kant believes that good will is the only intrinsically valuable things b. What he is i. Ethics: deontological ii. Metaphysics: blends realism (soft realism like Aristotle) and idealism 1. Believes there are 2 realms a. Rational realm: intrinsic, good will i. How we’re like God ii. Purely intellectual iii. A priori knowledge b. Bodily realm: instrumentally good; gifts of nature (virtue—Aristotle) and of fortune (happiness—Mill) i. Physical perceptions, 5 senses ii. Includes emotion (in contrast to Mill who puts emotional pleasures at top of hierarchy) iii. A posteriori knowledge iii. Epistemology: blends rationalism and empiricism (leans more empiricist like Aristotle) c. What we are made of i. Aristotle 1. 1 = nutritive soul (vegetative soul) 3 a. Irrational b. 2 In 1 c lu des plants and all vegetation 2. 2 = appetitive soul (reproductive soul) a. Partly irrational and partly rational b. Animals, not humans 3. 3 = rational soul a. Fully rational b. humans d. Kant wants to identify a supreme moral principle © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 i. This means that we all will follow the same rule 1. We must be equally capable of following the rule 2. The rule must be followed in the same way by everyone ii. The moral rule is based on intention or motivation 1. The only good thing (in­itself) is a good will e. Double standards = a rule that not all people are required to follow in exactly the same way i. Ex = yell at roommates for not doing dishes but you didn’t do them either ii. Ex = parents can slam doors but you’re not allowed to iii. Ex = boss tells you to get to work but he isn’t doing any iv. Ex = underage drinking, speeding, texting and driving f. The categorical imperative = states that we should “act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law” pg 94*** i. Formal in nature 1. Shape, we can substitute specific situations into this general form © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 1. Immanuel Kant a. What he is i. Ethics: deontology aka Kantianism ii. Metaphysics: blends realism and idealism iii. Epistemology: blends rationalism and empiricism i. Could say that he leans more towards empiricism because of his Aristotelian influences ii. Could also say that he leans more towards rationalism because of his focus on rationality b. Believes that there are two realms The intellectual/upper realm The bodily realm Encompasses rationalism/realism/intellectual Encompasses the emotional and the physical being (sense perception) Intrinsic value Instrumental value A priori knowledge A posteriori knowledge States that our intellectual ability is how we resemble God and that the essence of human being is rational though c. Aristotle’s Concept of Soul (intellect) i. 1 = nutritive soul (vegetative soul) a. Irrational 3 b. Includes plants, animals, humans, all 2 1 vegetation ii. 2 = appetitive soul (reproductive soul) a. Partially rational b. Animals and humans iii. 3 = rational soul a. Fully rational b. Only humans d. State that the only thing that is good in itself is a good will (pg 89) i. Not happiness = gift of fortune instrumentally good ii. Not virtue = gift of nature e. States that we will rather measure the goodness of our will by looking at the intention (volition/motivation) in the terms of duty (obligation) i. Example of duty on page 90 i. “to preserve one’s life is a duty…” ii. 2 kinds of duty i. Imperfect duty = a duty that is still required, but you can choose when and how you will fulfil it ii. Perfect duty = a duty that is absolutely required and must be done when the duty arises iii. 3 kinds of actions © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 i. Moral = actions that are done from duty a. Believes these are rare ii. Amoral = actions done in conformity/in accordance with duty a. Neither good or bad b. Most of our actions fall into this category iii. Immoral = actions done in contradiction/on the contrary to duty iv. Different kinds of duty i. Preserving one’s own life (perfect duty) ii. Helping others in need (being beneficent when possible) (imperfect duty) iii. Being truthful and don’t lie (perfect duty) iv. The cultivation of talent (imperfect duty) a. If you have a particular talent then you have an imperfect duty to let that talent grow and improve the world 2. Immanuel Kant – The Categorical Imperative a. First definition on pg 91 i. “I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law” i. Maxim = rule for action ii. Formal in nature (2 formulations) a. Universal Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative = states that I ought never to act in such a way that I cannot also will my maxim to be a universal law of nature i. General form of the CI (universal law) 1. I will determine the maxim (don’t speed) 2. Then, I will universalize the maxim (all ppl should not speed, unless they’re late) 3. Then, I will ask myself whether or not humanity can survive is #2 were a maxim a. If yes: I have an imperfect duty to not follow the maxim b. If no: I have a perfect duty to not follow the maxim i. Criticism: if I think about if the rule is good or not I have to think about the consequence when it’s supposed to be intention based. Also, it’s telling us what we shouldn’t do – negative test ii. Example: preserve’s one’s own life (perfect duty) 1. Determine the maxim a. I can kill myself if living life is harder than it is easy/worse than it is better 2. Universalize the maxim a. Everyone can kill themselves if living life is worse than it is better 3. Can humanity survive if #2 is a maxim a. No, therefore I have a perfect duty to not commit suicide © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 b. End­in­Itself Formulation of the Categorical Imperative = states that I act always as though humanity is an end, not merely a means i. General form of the CI (end­in­itself) 1. Ask ourselves whether our maxim conflicts with the idea of humanity as an end in itself a. If yes: we have a perfect duty to not follow the maxim because it conflicts with the idea that people are intrinsically valuable b. If no: ask if our maxim prevents harmony with the idea of humanity as an end­in­itself i. If yes: we have an imperfect duty to not follow the maxim ii. If no: we have no duty because the maxim isn’t morally relevant ii. Example: preserve’s one’s own life 1. Does the maxim of disposing of human life conflict with the idea of humanity as an end in itself a. Yes: we have a perfect duty to not dispose of human life iii. Example: cultivation of talent 1. Does the maxim that I must cultivate my talent conflict with the idea of humanity as an end in itself a. No: does our maxim prevent harmony with the idea of humanity as an end­in­itself i. Yes: we have an imperfect duty to cultivate our talent b. Categorical imperatives command action immediately c. Problems with the categorical imperative i. It won’t help us choose between two equally good or two equally bad options ii. It sometimes contradicts our moral intuitions iii. We can formulate maxims that will “trick” the imperative iv. The imperative is a negative test, making it confusing v. The imperative uses consequences to help determine our duty but Kant states that deontology and morality is intention based d. In contrast to the CI: the hypothetical imperative i. morality can’t be based on a hypothetical imperative because that would make it dependent on something ii. Hypothetical is an if/then i. i.e. if x happens, then I can be moral ii. instrumental in nature

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Chapter 6, Problem 6-11 is Solved
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Textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics
Edition: 14
Author: Russell C. Hibbeler
ISBN: 9780133918922

Engineering Mechanics: Statics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780133918922. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics, edition: 14. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 6-11 from chapter: 6 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/10/17, 05:25PM. The answer to “Determine the force in each member of the Pratt truss, and state if the members are in tension or compression. A B C D E F G H I J K L 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m 10 kN 10 kN 20 kN 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m 2 m Prob. 611” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 58 words. Since the solution to 6-11 from 6 chapter was answered, more than 287 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: compression, determine, Force, member, members. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 11 chapters, and 1136 solutions.

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Solved: Determine the force in each member of the Pratt