A 5-lb force is applied to the handles of the vise grip. Determine the compressive force developed on the smooth bolt shank A at the jaws. 5 lb 5 lb 1.5 in. 1 in. 3 in. 20 A B E C D 1 in. 0.75 in. Prob. 682
1 English 212 Study Guide Folder One Week One: “The Iroquois Creation Story” 1. The good mind was not contented to remain in a dark situation, and he was anxious to create a great light in the dark world; but the bad mind was desirous that the world should remain in a natural state. The good mind determines to prosecute his designs, and therefore commences the work of creation. 2. When the monsters are assembled, and they made consultation, one of them was appointed in haste to search the great deep, in order to procure some earth, if it could be obtained; accordingly, the monster descends, which succeeds, and returns to the place. Christopher Columbus: from “Letter to Santangel Regarding the First Voyage” 1. And since there were neither towns nor villages on the seashore, but only small hamlets, with the people of which I could not have speech because they all fled immediately, I went forward on the same course, thinking that I should not fail to find great cities and towns. 2. And the nightingale was singing and other birds of a thousand kinds in the month of November there I went. There are six or eight kinds of palm, which are a wonder to behold on account of their beautiful variety, but so are the other trees and fruits and plants…. there are birds of many kinds and fruits in great diversity. Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca: from “The Relation of…” 1. My only remaining duty is to transmit what I saw and heard in the nine years I wandered lost and miserable over many remote lands. 2. Three months out of every year they eat nothing but oysters and drink very bad water. Wood is scarce; mosquitoes plentiful. The houses are made of mats; their floors consist of masses of oyster shells. The natives sleep on these shells in animal skins, those who happen to own such. John Smith: from “A Description of New England” 1. Let this move you to embrace employment, for those who educations, spirits, and judgements want but your purses; not only to prevent such accustomed dangers, but also to gain more thereby than you have. 2. Here nature and liberty afford us that freely, which in England we want, or it costeth us dearly. 2 William Bradford: from “Of Plymouth Plantation” 1. He directed them how to set their corn, where to take fish, and to procure other commodities, and was also their pilot to bring them to unknown places for their profit, and never left them till he died. He was a native of this place, and scare any left alive besides himself. 2. But that which was most sad and lamentable was, that in two or three months’ time half of their company died especially in January and February, being the depth of winter and wanting houses and other comforts; being infected with scurvy and other diseases, which this long voyage and their inaccommodate condition had brought upon them; so as there died sometimes two or three of a day, in the foresaid time; that of one hundred and odd persons, scarce fifty remained. John Winthrop: “A Model of Christian Charity” 1. Now the only way to avoid this shipwreck, and to provide for our prosperity, is to follow the counsel of Micah, to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God. For this end, we must be knit together in this work as one man. 2. Every man might have need of other, and from hence they might be all knit more nearly together in the bands of brotherly affection. From hence it appears plainly that no man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy, etc., out of any particular and singular respect to himself, but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man. Anne Bradstreet: “Here Follows Some Verses” 1. I blest His name that gave and took, that laid my goods now in the dust. Yea, so it was, and so t’was just. 2. It was His own, it was not mine, far be it that I should repine; He might of all justly bereft but yet sufficient for us left. Mary Rowlandson: from “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of” 1. Of thirtyseven persons who were in this one house, none escaped either present death, or a bitter captivity. Save only one, who might say as he “And I only am escaped alone to tell the News”. There were twelve killed, some shot, some stabbed with their spears, some knocked down with their hatchets. 2. I told them the skin was off my back, but I had no other comforting answer from them than this: that it would be matter if my head were off too. 3 3. They would pick up old bones, and cut them to pieces at the joints, and if they were full of worms and maggots, they would scald them over the fire to make the vermin come out, and then boil them and drink up the liquor, and then beat the great ends of them in a mortar, and so eat them. They would eat horse’s guts, and ears, and all sorts of wild birds which they could catch; also bear, venison, beaver, tortoise, frogs, squirrels, dogs, skunks, rattlesnakes; yea, the very bark of trees. Edward Taylor: “Huswifery” 1. Make me, O Lord, Thy Spinning Wheel complete. / Thy Holy Word my Distaff make for me. 2. Make mine Affections Thy Swift Flyers neat/ And make my Soul Thy Holy Spool to be. / My conversation make me to be Thy Reel/ And reel the yarn thereon spun of Thy Wheel. Cotton Mather: “The Wonders of the Invisible World” 1. We have been advised by some credible Christians yet alive, that a malefactor, accused of witchcraft as well as murder, and executed in this place more than forty years ago, did then give notice of an horrible plot against the country by witchcraft, and a foundation of witchcraft then laid, which if it were not seasonably discovered, would probably blow up, and pull down all the churches in the country. 2. These our poor afflicted neighbors, quickly after they become infected and infested with these demons, arrive to a capacity of discerning those which they conceive the shapes of their troublers; and notwithstanding the great and just suspicion that the demons might impose the shapes of innocent persons in their spectral exhibitions upon the sufferers (which may perhaps prove no small part of the witchplot in the issue), yet many of the persons thus represented, being examined, several of them have been convicted of a very damnable witchcraft: yea, more than one [and] twenty have confessed, that they have signed unto a book, which the devil showed them, and engaged in his hellish design of bewitching and ruining our land. Nathaniel Hawthorne: “The Minister’s Black Veil” 1. The subject had reference to secret sin, and those sad mysteries which we hide from our nearest and dearest, and would fain conceal from our own consciousness, even forgetting that the Omniscient can detect them. 2. When does man not vainly shrink from the eye of his Creator, loathsomely treasuring up the secret of his sin; then deem me a monster, for the symbol beneath which I have lived, and die! I look around me, and lo! On every visage a black veil! 4 Week Two: Jonathan Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” 1. The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked: His wrath towards you burns like fire; He looks upon you as worthy of nothing else but to be cast into the fire; He is of purer eyes than to bear to have you in His sight; you are ten thousand times more abominable in His eyes than the most hateful venomous serpent is in ours. You have offended Him infinitely more than ever a stubborn rebel did his prince; and yet it is nothing but His hand that holds you from falling into the fire every moment. 2. O sinner! Consider the fearful danger you are in: it is a great furnace of wrath, a wide and bottomless pit, full of the fire of wrath, that you are held over in the hand of that God, whose wrath is provoked and incensed as much against you, as against many of the damned in hell. Red Jacket: “Reply to the Missionary Jacob Cram” 1. They told us they had fled from their own country for fear of wicked men, and had come here to enjoy their religion. They asked for a small seat. We took pity on them, granted their request; and they sat down amongst us. We gave them corn and meat; they gave us poison in return. 2. We do not wish to destroy your religion, or take it from you. We only want to enjoy our own. Tecumseh: “Speech to the Osages” 1. The white men want more than our hunting grounds; they wish to kill our warriors; they would even kill our old men, women, and little ones. 2. If you do not unite with us, they will first destroy us, and then you will fall an easy prey to them. They have destroyed many nations of red men because they were not united, because they were not friends to each other. Benjamin Franklin: from The Autobiography 5 1. It was about this time that I conceiv’d the bold and arduous Project of arriving at moral Perfection. I wish’d to live without committing any Fault at anytime; I would conquer all that either Natural Inclination, Custom, or Company might lead me into. 2. I made a little Book in which I allotted a Page for each of the Virtues. I rul’d each Page with red Ink so as to have seven Columns, one for each Day of the Week, marking each Column with a Letter for the Day. I cross’d these Columns with thirteen red Lines, marking the Beginning of each Line with the first Letter of one of the Virtues, on which Line and in its proper Column I might mark by a little black Spot every Fault I found upon Examination, to have been committed respecting that Virtue upon that Day. J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur: from “Letters from an American Farmer”; Letters III & IX 1. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. 2. Here the rewards of his industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor; his labor is founded on the basis of nature, selfinterest; can it want a stronger allurement... This is an American. Thomas Jefferson: from “The Declaration of Independence” 1. He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where men should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislature attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce. And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die… 2. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend a jurisdiction over these our states…no one of which could warrant so strange a pretension: that these were effected at the expense of our own blood and treasure, unassisted by the wealth or the strength of Great Britain: that in constituting indeed our several forms of government, we had adopted one common king, thereby laying a foundation for perpetual league and amity with them: but that submission to their parliament was no part of our constitution, nor ever in idea, if history may be credited… The Federalist: No. 1 [Alexander Hamilton], No. 10 [James Madison] 1. But the fact is that we already hear it whispered in the private circles if those who oppose the new constitution that the thirteen states are of too great extent for any general system, and that we must of necessity resort to separate confederacies of distinct portions of the whole. 6 2. From this view of the subject, it may be concluded, that a pure democracy, by which I mean a society consisting of a small number of citizens who assemble and administer the government in person, can admit of no cure for the mischiefs of faction. Olaudah Equiano: “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of…” 1. The stench of the hold while we were on the coast was so intolerably loathsome…This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died thus falling victims to the improvident avarice, as I may call it, of their purchasers. This wretched situation was again aggravated by the galling of the chains, now become insupportable, and the filth of the necessary tubs, into which the children often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable. 2. As every object was new to me, everything I saw filled me with surprise. What struck me first, was, that the houses were built with bricks and stories and in every other respect different from those I had seen in Africa; but I was still more astonished on seeing people on horseback. I did not know what this could mean; and, indeed, I thought these people were full of nothing but magical arts. Philip Freneau: “On the Religion of Nature” 1. Religion, such as nature taught, / With all divine perfection suits;/ Had all mankind this system sought/ Sophists would cease their vain disputes, / And from this source would nations know/ All that can make their heaven below. 2. Joy to the day, when all agree/ On such grand systems to proceed, / From fraud, design, and error free, / And which to truth and goodness lead:/ Then persecution will retreat/ And man’s religion be complete. Washington Irving: “Rip Van Winkle” 1. He found the house gone to decay the roof fallen in, the windows shattered, and the doors off the hinges…It was empty, forlorn, and apparently abandoned. This desolateness overcame all his connubial fears he called loudly for his wife and children the lonely chambers rung for a moment with his voice, and then all again was silent. 2. “God knows,” exclaimed he, at his wit’s end; “I’m not myself I’m somebody else that’s me yonder no that’s somebody else, got into my shoes I was myself last night, but I fell asleep on the mountain, and they’ve changed my gun, and everything’s changed, and I’m changed, and I can’t tell what’s my name, or who I am!” 7 Nathaniel Hawthorne: “My Kinsman, Major Molineux” 1. Right before Robin’s eyes was an uncovered cart. There the torches blazed the brightest, there the moon shone out like day, and there, in tarandfeathery dignity, sate his kinsman, Major Molineux! 2. Then Robin seemed to hear the voices of the barbers; of the guests of the inn; and off all who had made sport of him that night. The contagion was spreading among the multitude, when, all at once, it seized upon Robin, and he sent forth a shout of laughter that echoed through the street; every man shook his sides, every man emptied his lungs, but Robin’s shout was the loudest there. Week Three: William Cullen Bryant: “Thanatopsis” 1. 2.