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Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x a y xn h h

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler ISBN: 9780133918922 126

Solution for problem 9-20 Chapter 9

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780133918922 | Authors: Russell C. Hibbeler

Engineering Mechanics: Statics | 14th Edition

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Problem 9-20

Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x a y xn h h an Prob. 920

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Introduction to Sociology Youngstown State University SOCIO 1500­23210 8:00AM­8: 50AM Professor: Denise A. Narcisse danarcisse@ysu.edu Textbook: Henslin, James, 2013. Essentials of Sociology, A Down to Earth Approach. Pearson ISBN: 978­0­13­380345­9 Exam 1 – Wednesday February 10, 2016 Exam 2 – Wednesday March 23, 2016 Exam 3 – Monday May 2, 2016 from 8:00AM­10:00AM (Final) Written responses due in class on day assigned by the last name on syllabus. January 13, 2016 – W Extra Credit Opportunity Choose two questions and respond. Responses due Friday in class. 1) Where do we learn what it means to be a man or woman in America 2) Give examples of cultural differences in an acceptable behavior for men and women. 3) List three behaviors you associate with being a man in America. 4) List three behaviors you associate with being a woman in America. 5 points January 15, 2016 – F Listened to songs in class and compared them. Imagine­ John Lennon Imagine­ Change Foundation A. Sociological Perspective 1. Sociological perspective is a way of viewing, interpreting, and understanding human behavior, which emphasizes how our society, culture, and the groups we belong to affect our behavior. 2. Sociologists examine the influence of external factors on people and groups. Examples of External Factors: ● Our economy ● Our family and friends ● The media (films, TV, magazines, internet) January 20, 2016 ­ W B. Case examples of what is (and isn’t) a sociological perspective 1. Lance Armstrong­ cyclist, blood doping to win races ● Saying he used blood doping because his fans expect him to win at all costs is a sociological explanation for his blood doping ● Blood doping­ transfusion of white blood cells to increase stamina longer 2. Tiger Woods­ claims to be a sex addict, cheats on wife 3. Justin Bieber­ egging a house, fame getting to him Origins of Sociology A. 3 factors contributing to its emergence: 1. French revolution ● French revolution was the scientific study of society and human behavior emerge in mid 1800s in Europe a. Occurred in 1789 b. The ruling class is over thrown and people begin to question the way of doing things c. People start asking why i. Why should small groups rule ii. Why should small groups own all of the land and wealth while most people starve d. Traditionally people answered these questions by saying it was i. God’s will and the rulers were smarter e. However answers became unacceptable and people began to revoke 2. Industrial Revolution ● Industrial revolution was emerged in North America in late 1800s a. Occurred around same time as French revolution b. Replacing the horse and plow for steam engine and powered machinery c. Factories emerged and started to produce farmer’s once produce much faster d. Fewer people go to farmer John and more begin to buy factory goods (spiral effect) e. Farmers relocate to factories but the cities aren’t equipped for all the new people moving into the city f. Confusion and chaos occurred g. Disease and illness increased h. People are confused because the old way of doing things no longer applies i. Unemployment continues o Sociology grew out of social upheaval o Social upheaval in a rapid and extensive changed society o Good/ better things people don’t really like to do because it’s new and they don’t understand it o Sometimes even good things cause chaos 3. Application of Scientific Method to The study of Society a. People in chemistry, physics, and other natural scientists started to study things using new systematic method b. A new method called the scientific method was discovered c. Philosophers of today decided that the new method could also be used to study things in the social world January 22, 2016 – F B. Five Early Sociologist 1. Comte (France) a. came up with the term sociology b. interested with the foundation of sociology c. he stressed that an important goal of sociology should be to make the world a better place by social reform 2. Spencer (England) a. Interested in evolution of society from a criminative state to a civilized one b. He disagreed with Comte’s idea that sociology should guide social reform c. He argued that society should be allowed to improve through a natural process, through this people would be weeded out if they were weak and were allowed to survive if they were strong d. Social Darwinism­ argues through natural process, weak is weeded out, strong survives 3. Marx (Germany) a. Carl Marx argued that the tension he observed in society resulted from conflict between groups b. The two main groups were the people who owned the means to produce wealth and those who didn’t, the mean owners were typically business owners c. You are either a have or a have not d. He contributed a lot to what we now call the conflict perspective 4. Durkheim (France) a. Studied suicide extremely b. Emphasized importance of social integration and understanding suicide c. Social integration­ he meant to the extent which we are tied orconnected to a social group like our family, friends, and neighbors d. He found that people that were not well integrated in a society were more likely to commit suicide, examples would include protestants more likely to commit suicide than Catholics, men more than women, and single people more than married people. We can tie social integration with gender. 5. Weber (Germany) a. Focused on the role of religion in social change b. He proposed that the protestant religion played a key role in the capital region January 25, 2016 ­ M C. Sociologists in North America a. Earliest departments of sociology in the United States were established in the late 1800s and at three universities: 1.) University of Kansas 2.) University of Chicago 3.) University of Atlanta 1. Jane Addams a. Studied and provided social services to the poor who immigrated to Chicago from Europe in the 1800s b. Chaos occurred on west side of Chicago c. She established the Haul House d. The Haul House was a settlement house that provided social services like literacy programs, job training, and recreational programs for children e. She received a nobel peace prize in 1931 for her noble efforts f. Believed that new discipline/ sociology should be used to make the world a better place by social reform 2. W.E.B. Dubois a. William Edward Burnhart Dubois b. First African American to earn a doctorate, PhD at Harvard University c. He was a sociologist in the United States to combine sociology and social reform, he believed sociology should be used to make the world a better place d. Research based on race relations, more about relationships between whites and black e. He wanted to improve race relations f. He and Jane Addams founded the NAACP (National Association for Advancement of Colored People) 3. Talcott Parsons a. Was interested in how society is structured and fit together b. Developed a model that describes society as being comprised of various systems 1.) Economic System 2.) Political System 3.) Legal System 4.) Educational, Religious, and Family Systems c. Each system has a function for examples an important function of #4 above was to socialize people in society and to instill common values into people d. Didn't believe sociology should be used for social reform 4. C. Wright Mills a. Studied the power elite, which he defined as: 1.) Top Business Leaders 2.) Top Political Leaders 3.) Top Military Officials b. According to Mills the power elite: 1.) Stuck together 2.) Traveled in same social circles 3.) Shared family backgrounds 4.) Controlled anything that went on in America including what the media reported Extra Credit Opportunity 1. Think of your favorite song 2. Consider the year the song was produced or release 3. Type that year and the term "time line" into Google 3. In 5­6 sentences, describe how you believe events that were taking place when your favorite song was produced influence YOUR outlook on life Submit your written responses in class by this Wednesday, 1/27/16 5 points January 27, 2016 ­ W More on Sociological Perspective Theory and Hypothesis A. Defining Theory and Hypothesis 1. Theory­ a general statement about how some parts of the world get together and how they work a. A theory implies a cause­effect relationship b. Example: a lack of social integration increases people's vulnerability to physical abuse c. Theories generate what we call a hypothesis 2. Hypothesis­ predictions that we draw from a theory a. A hypothesis often takes the format of an if­then statement b. Example: a hypothesis based upon the above theory would go like this; If a woman is socially isolated from friends and family then she is more likely to become a victim of physical abuse rather than a woman who is not c. Theories and hypothesis must be tested, we must examine evidence that either supports or refutes/disagrees with it B. Independent and Dependent Variables 1. Independent variables­ refers to the thing(s) we believe because of something a. Use the letter ‘x’ to represent the independent variable b. Example: lack of social integration 2. Dependent variables­ refers to the thing(s) we believe is the end result outcome or effect of something a. We use the letter ‘y’ to represent it b. Example: vulnerability to physical abuse is the dependent variable January 29, 2016 ­ F III. Three Main Sociological Theories A. Symbolic Interaction a. Theory focuses on how people: 1. Understand experiences 2. Communication with each other 3. Establish meanings b. Symbols are things that represent something else c. Our culture teaches us what meanings to attach things d. Example: the word “Pig” Dirty, slob, gross, male, animal, bacon, police 1. Symbolic Interaction Focus a. we learn from our culture for the meanings of words b. symbols mean different things c. examples: red light, middle finger, yawn, bored or tired, or a frown could mean the the person/thing is angry, disappointed or disapproves 2. Symbolic Interaction Features a. theory argues there is something about the meanings we attach symbols (words/gestures) that influence how we interact with people and things b. looks at small scale social interaction (relationships between family members), example: a heart attack outcome and family's interaction c. symbolic interaction theory tends to looks at face to face interaction d. this theory uses micro level analysis i. think of micro as a microscope ii. the scope of micro level analysis is narrow and allows us to get very detailed information like a microscope would e. George Herbert Mead and Erving Goffman were well known symbolic interaction theorists 3. Case Example: Divorce from a symbolic interaction perspective a. symbolic interaction theory emphasizes the meaning that we attach to things we attach to the meanings such as: i. marriage ii. romantic love iii. divorce b. our expectations about what we should get out of marriage has changed, in the past we expected the primary purpose of marriage to be to produce kids and love was less important, and today we expect marriages to include romantic love c. today men and women are less willing to stay in a loveless marriage d. a symbolic interactionist would argue that this explains the rise in divorce rates e. all about meanings and expectations are key to social interaction f. examples: Queen­ the boy doesn’t know if he loves his wife but his own mother tells him that it isn't just about love, Cat in The Tin House­ woman tells her daughter in law that her son never started drinking until he married her and that she is to blame February 1, 2016 ­ M B. Structural Functionalism Theory 1. Structural Functionalism Theory Focus a. this theory focuses on the organization and function of the institutions society as a whole b. this theory argues that each society has certain needs that must be met if it is to survive c. Three needs that functionalists say must be met are: i. goods and services must be provided and distributed ii. someone has to administer justice i.e. someone has to determine right and wrong and someone has to reward people for good behavior and punish people for bad behavior iii. people have to be taught the same values d. an important thing about these needs is that society develops different systems to handle these needs and each system is made up of various institutions e. Example: i. Need­ Administer Justice ii. System­ Legal System iii. Institution­ Courts Everything fits together which is called structural functionalism f. this theory sees the various parts of a system as working together, i.e. another name for this theory is consensus theory g. Equilibrium is a key concept in the theory, by equilibrium we mean all parts of a system are all working together properly and in balance h. Functionalists argue that when a crisis occurs parts of a system will work together to restore equilibrium i. Example: hurricane Katrina­ helping people by giving them food, clothes, etc. ii. According to functionalists when one thing goes wrong another thing steps in to help 2. Structural Functionalism Theory Features a. functionalism uses macro level of analysis, macro level analysis is broad and it looks at social structure, macro is big like a Big Mac b. Three well known functionalist include: i. Emile Durkheim ii. Robert Merton iii. Talcott Parsons February 3, 2016 ­ W 3. Case Example: Divorce from a functionalist perspective a. functionalists say that certain things weaken the traditional functions of family b. specifically functionalists say industrialization and urbanization weaken traditional family functions c. when these traditional functions of family were weaken the bonds between husband and wife weakened d. marriages became fragile and divorce increased i. example: movie Walk the Line­ scene where Little Johnny, his parents, and his siblings worked together to pick cotton e. structuralists argue functionalism weakens, families become fragile C. Conflict Perspective 1. Conflict Perspective Focus a. this theory views people and groups in the society as being in a disagreement b. conflict theorists argue that groups compete fiercely over scarce resources i. example of scarce resources includes 1. high paying jobs 2. best home and neighborhood 3. best schools c. domination is also a key concept of conflict theory, to dominate means to overpower, have final say, and have your wishes followed even by people who disagree with your wishes 2. Conflict Perspective Features a. in the past it was customary for husbands to dominate their wives in marriage b. in addition, women were encouraged to be economically dependant of their husbands c. so, women often had no choice but to stay in bad marriages d. something called marriage bars encouraged this, marriage bars were policies that allowed employers to fire a woman when she got married e. today marriage bars are illegal and considered discriminatory f. so, today women are freer to divorce and not stay in bad marriages g. today many women don’t have to depend on their husbands for survival, they have their own jobs and money February 5, 2016 ­ F I. Doing Sociological Research A. Doing Sociological Research 1. To systematically test theories, by this we mean to conduct research in a certain way and ideally in a chronological order involving about 8 steps 2. To provide evidence that supports or refutes (disagrees with) theory 3. To ensure what we think is true and consistent is actually true and consistent ­ this involves validity and reliability B. The Concepts “Validity” and “Reliability” 1. Validity­ refers to the extent to which you are actually measuring what you intend to measure a. There were people who tested Lance Armstrong and his teammates to see if they were blood doping and using steroids. Were those people measuring what they intended to No, because they didn’t know what they intended that’s why they found nothing, technology wasn’t updated, so the tests were invalid. 2. Reliability­ refers to results that are consistent over time a. Example: A football player who scores a touchdown season after season after season is an example of reliability. He is consistent. b. We can also be consistently incorrect. February 8, 2016­ M Review for Test February 10, 2016­ W Exam 1 Curve: 35­31 A 30­26 B 25­21 C 20­16 D 15 below F Score: 32/35 ­ A Plus extra credit: 42/35 February 12, 2016­ F C. The 8 steps in Sociological Research (conducted in this order) 1. Select a Topic a. What do we want to know more about b. Any human behavior is a potential topic for sociologists c. Sociological research is based upon i. Sociological interest ii. Your access to subjects iii. Appropriate methods iv. Ethical consideration 2. Define your pattern­ concern a. State what you want to learn about a given topic b. Discuss why you want to study, what to say, and what you want to study 3. Conduct a Literature Review a. Read what has already published on your topic if anything 4. Formulate a hypothesis a. Think of a hypothesis as an if­then statement that predicts something b. An example of an hypothesis would be: If an athlete is under pressure to perform, then he is more likely to use performance enhancing drugs. (Steroids) 5. Choose a Research Method a. A research method is a procedure for collecting data b. Sociologists use 6 basic research methods c. We will review these momentarily 6. Collect Data a. (Keeping the issues of reliability and validity in mind) 7. Analyze the Results a. You can analyze the results by relating your results to what you expect to find b. You can analyze the results by relating results to what other people have found c. You can use statistical software to analyze results 8. Share the results February 15, 2016­ M II. Six Research Methods for Collecting Data A. Survey Research Method 1. Features a. This method involves collecting data by having people to answer a series of questions b. Examples: i. US Census ii. Gallop poll iii. Consumer surveys that survey companies sometimes tell us (e.g. Dermagraphics of buyers) 2. Strengths a. Fairly easy to administer b. Surveys are relatively cheap and fairly easy to administer 3. Limitations a. We cannot go in depth info on a topic b. The response rate for mailed surveys is low B. Participant Observation Research Method 1. Features a. This field work in which you observe people and things in their natural setting and by directly observing them b. Example of study that use the participant observation research method is one connected by Barbara Enrenrich i. Barbara wanted to know the obstacles that low wage women encountered in the workplace ii. So she became a maid, Walmart sales clerk, and waitress iii. She wrote a book called Nickel and Dime that described what she learned c. This method means you are observing when you participate d. “Dammed if you do, dammed if you don't” e. Barbara concluded that women were often on the Catch 22 2. Strengths a. Provides more descriptive detail information than most other research methods do b. Example this method allows you to gather information on facial features, dress, and language c. Example: some people don't treat their hotel rooms like they do their own home 3. Limitations a. Usually can only study small groups/communities b. Research may not take place if the researcher doesn't know how to get close to people so that the researcher can study them c. May be greater risk for the researcher to lose his/her neutral or objective perspective using this method i. This is true if the researcher closely identifies with the people being studied C. Secondary Analysis Research Method 1. Features a. Involves examining data someone else collected, and sometimes for another purpose b. Example: researcher who examines the original data from a study of women abused by their husbands i. Perhaps you want to use data to determine whether or not differences between husband/wife education is associated with wife abuse ii. You can do this as long as original study has info on this c. Researchers often conduct secondary analysis using data originally conducted by the US Census Bureau, Labor Dept. and Dept. of Education 2. Strengths a. Researchers don't have to spend time collecting original data b. Some public documents are fairly easy to get from the local library or off the internet February 17, 2016­ W Class Canceled February 19, 2016­ F 3. Limitations a. Researchers have no control over the collection of the original data b. Researchers are limited to asking only those questions that the original data will allow them to answer if they're going to use that data c. Some publish secondary data, may be outdated D. Documents 1. Features a. Involves examining books, newspapers, bank accounts, records, police reports, and immigration files 2. Strengths and Limitations a. … Of these methods are similar to those of secondary data analysis E. Experiments 1. Features a. An experiment is a test under controlled conditions, this test is done to demonstrate a known truth, to examine the validity of something, or to determine the validity of something not previously tried b. Example: if a man looks at a women's nudes he will view the woman as a sex optics c. Experimental Group­ group that receives treatment, intervention, or has something done to it d. Control Group­ group that doesn't receive treatment or intervention and is the group that has nothing done to it e. You can only say your hypothesis is supported it cannot be proven f. Perhaps we decide to conduct an experiment to see the effect of exposure to pornography on viewing women as sex objects g. Hypothesis in this case is if a man is shown nudes of a woman then he will review woman as sex objects more often than a man who isn't shown nudes h. You recruit 100 men to be in the study, you divide them into 2 groups. Group A is shown nudes, Group B is shown national geographic (placebo). i. Independant and Dependant Variables 2. Strengths a. best research method for determining cause and effect b. experiments provide the researcher with greater control over research conditions that most other research methods do 3. Limitations a. experimental conditions may not match real life situations b. consistently results from an experiment may not tell us much about people's behavior under normal everyday conditions c. Sometimes there's not a one to one match to an experiment and everyday life Review the Milgram Experiment in our book. It involves a person in a white coat asking another person to administer what were deadly votes to someone on the other side making the person doing it feel as if they are killing the other person. Pointed that we tend sometimes blindly follow the instructions from an authority figure. February 22, 2016­ M F. Unobtrusive Observation 1. Features a. This is field work where you observe people without them knowing they are being watched b. You observe on the side c. Example: sitting on a park bench taking note of which parent, mother/father, seems to take kids to the park more often d. Knowing this information would help us answer questions about: i. Early childhood socialization ii. Gender roles ­ for example whether or not men are assuming more responsibility for child care 2. Strengths a. The ability to observe people in their natural setting b. The ability to obtain detailed descriptive information about people and social life 3. Limitations a. People may change their behavior if they know they are being watched b. Researchers have less opportunity to ask people to explain their behavior because people are not supposed to know their being watched c. The issue of violating a person's privacy may arise more often when you use this method III. Ethics in Sociological Research A. Protecting Human Subjects Through Internal Review Boards a. An institutional review board (IRB) is a committee established to review and approve research involving human subjects b. Any institution that engages in federally funded research involving human subjects must have an IRB c. Purpose of the IRB is to ensure that appropriate steps are being taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating in research studies d. The objective is to make sure you are protecting your human subjects and if you don't you're technically not allowed to conduct research e. An important goal of IRBs is to protect human subjects from physical or physiological harm f. Tuskegee experiment­ people though they were being treated for syphilis and decades after they were told they were not actually treated for it B. Questionable Research Ethics in Past Studies 1. The Humphrey Studies a. Tea Room Experiment b. The Humphrey study of the sexual activities of gay men married to woman sparked a lot of con traverse c. Humphrey was a former priest who was working on his phD at Southern Illinois University d. He became the lookout guy for gay men who had anonymous sex in certain restrooms near campus e. The slang term that people use for such places is Tea Room f. Humphrey writes down the men's license plate number and gets one of his friends, a police officer to run the license plate numbers to get the men's home address. g. Then he convinces a group of researchers at SIU to let him join a study of men's health issues, this study involves going into the men's home h. He disguises himself, visits the men's homes, interviews them, and discovers many were married i. Humphrey argued that the information he learned justified his tactics, but the research community disagreed, said the research was unethical, said that Humphrey violated the men's privacy and demanded greater regulation of research involving human subjects February 24, 2016 ­ W I. What is Culture A. Defining Culture and its Major Components Culture is one of the most widely used concepts in sociology. Sociologists say culture is universal because every society has a culture just not the same one. a. Culture may be defined as: i. gestures and languages that members of a group use to communicate ii. the values and beliefs that members of a group hold iii. the norms that people follow iv. the material goods that people create II. Examining the Components of Culture A. Gestures as a Component of Culture a. Gestures are the ways that we communicate without words but with using our body b. Another term for gestures is body language c. Examples: i. Smile ii. Frown iii. Raised eyebrow iv. Folded arms v. Bob leaves his apartment at 8:15am and stops and get breakfasts, waiter asks is it the usual He nods head yes, as he's eating his danish an overweight man gets in his way and Bob scowls. The man holds in his stomach and scooted in and Bob shakes his head and the counter man nodded his head. d. We agree on the meanings of certain gestures because our culture teaches us the meanings of those gestures e. Gestures may vary from culture to culture i. Examples of Cultural Differences in Standing Distance: 1. In America we shake hands and stand about to 2­2.5 feet from each other to discuss business 2. In Japan people may bow and stand about 4 feet apart to discuss business 3. In some Latin American and Caribbean cultures people may hug and kiss each other on both cheeks and just stand 6 inches from one another's face 4. Cultural differences in displaying the soles (bottom) of your feet or shoes 5. In America businessmen may rest their feet on top of a desk or chair while talking to one another 6. In Saudi Arabia and Thailand resting your feet on top of a desk may be improper ­ this is the case because the soles of one's shoes or feet are considered to be the dirtiest part of the body ­ therefore, to do this is an insult Cultural Differences about Eye Contact a. In America people who do not look one another directly in the eye may be labeled incensere or guilty of wrongdoing b. But in China for example, to look an authority figure directly in the eye is a sign of disrespect ­ also in Latino cultures c. Hanslin (author of textbook) cautions us against something called Ethnocentrism ii. Ethnocentrism refers to a tendency to view your culture as good, proper, and even superior ­ the idea that your culture is at the center of everything iii. Ethno­ means group, centrism­ means center of the universe iv. Ethnocentrism says my group is the center of everything/universe, if your group doesn't do what my group does there's something wrong with your group v. Can lead to discrimination vi. For example­ if you don't Ski there's something wrong with you, if you don't travel to Europe there's something wrong with you f. Cultural relativism­ judging a culture on its own terms, without concluding that is is good or bad i. Some cultures people use utensils to eat and others use their hands February 26, 2016 ­ F Watched the Merchants of Cool February 29, 2016 ­ M Finished Merchants of Cool ● Who are cool hunters ­ People who track down the latest cool trends in teen life. ● Reports that there are 5 media giants that marketed to youth culture in 2001. ● These media giants include: ○ Aol­Time Warner ○ Viacom, owns MTV ○ Universal Vivendi ○ Disney ○ News Corp. ● According to film, teenagers watch 3,000 advertisements a day ● Media tries to sell things to youth culture, the film justifies it ● According to the film, not only does the media sell to youth culture, it creates youth culture. ● Media is manipulating youth culture, they sell things and suggest that this is what they wanted deep down all along. Ex: $500 shoes ● The Mook and the midriff were fictional characters, not real people ○ Mook­ obnoxious representation of males ○ Midriff­ slutty ● Companies were reported to pay $20,000 to view the Cool Lookbook ● 75% of kids were reported to have a TV set in their room in 2001 ● The media is a huge social institution that has a tremendous influence on everyone, including youth culture. B. Language As A Component of Culture a. Language refers to shared systems of symbols such as the spoken or written word which is used to communicate abstract thought b. Language and gestures are examples of what we call non material or symbolic culture i. Material good ­ saggy pants ii. Symbolic culture ­ various meanings we attach to the word“pig” iii. What makes nonmaterial culture or symbolic culture significant are the meanings we attach to it iv. Examples­ slut, hoochie mama c. Four additional things that make language important are: i. Language allows human experience to be cumulative 1. That is through the written or spoken word, knowledge about how to do things is passed from one generation to the next 2. This knowledge accumulates so that a person can go to the library, open a book, and learn about things 3. A person does not have to experience everything first hand d. Language allows us to discuss past and future events with others e. Language allows people to exchange ideas or perspectives and to come to a common perception and understanding of things f. Language enables us to establish a purpose for doing things g. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis i. This hypothesis proposes that language determines our world view ii. Language directs our attention to some things while directing our attention away from other things iii. Example: the multiple terms that eskimos have for different types of snow 1. Eskimo language includes a different word for fine powdery snow, thick powdery snow, wet snow, and dry snow 2. In contrast, there tends to be only one word for snow in English which is snow March 2, 2016 ­ W C. Values and Beliefs as Components of Culture a. Beliefs refer to what we think to be true b. Values refer to people's ideas about what is desirable in life i. Core values in mainstream America have included 1. Achievements and success 2. Individualism 3. Material Comfort e.g. nice homes and late model cars 4. Freedom, the ability to act and think as one chooses without restraint (not everyone has the ability to talk about government) 5. Democracy­ majority rule and the right for everyone to express an opinion and representative government 6. Equality­ having the same or equivalent privileges, status, rights, and opportunities D. Norms and Sanctions as Components of Culture a. Norms are rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values i. For example: YSU values academic honesty ii. One norm (or rule of behavior) that develop out of this value is students should not cheat on exams iii. Another norm that develop out of this value is faculty should not plagiarize (steal) the work of other faculty iv. The value of academic honesty is the norm between students and faculty b. Sanctions refer to the reactions people get for following or breaking norms i. Positive sanction is a reaction that expresses approval for following a norm 1. Examples: hand gestures like a high five, thumbs up, a trophy, prize money, pay raise ii. Negative sanction is a reaction that expresses disapproval for breaking the norm 1. Example: facing people in elevator instead straight ahead, riding toys at toys r us, going up escalator opposite way, speeding ticket March 4, 2016 ­ F III. Different Types of Norms A. From Folkways to Taboos 1. Folkways a. Folkways are norms that are not strictly enforced b. Examples of folkways include: i. Burping at dinner table ii. Putting elbows on dinner table iii. Walking on the wrong side of the sidewalk against a crowd of people c. People sometimes say that a person is acting in poor taste when he/she breaks a folkway, but breaking a folkway usually is not a reason to send someone to jail 2. Mores a. Mores are norms that carry moderate to severe punishment if broken b. Seen as being essential to society's core values c. Typically we insist that people conform to mores d. Examples of mores include: i. Stealing or destroying private property (such as a car, computer, tv, or someone's wallet) ii. Arson iii. Rape iv. We often define the violation of more as a crime 3. Taboos a. Taboo are norms that carry the most severe penalty if broken b. Examples of taboos in the US: i. Multiple or serial killings ii. Incest iii. Cannibalism c. People who violate taboos are often sent to jail for life d. Some people who violate taboos receive an additional negative sanction, that additional negative sanction is to be labeled criminally insane e. Some people may be put to death for breaking a taboo f. Sometimes even the family members of those persons who committed a taboo are persecuted by the media Spring Break March 4­13 March 14, 2016 ­ M IV. Culture and Group Identity A. Subculture and Counterculture a. Subculture i. Subculture­ represents a smaller culture within a larger dominant culture ii. the values, norms, language, clothing, and activity of a subculture set it apart from the dominant culture iii. TcH2Oqd (Take two tablets with water everyday) iv. Example: 1. Physician's, things that set a physician apart from others include white lab coat, certain language (TcH20qd), and stethoscope. v. Members of a subculture have characteristics that can distinguish them from the dominant culture within a society. But, their characteristics are usually not at serious odds with the dominant culture. b. Counterculture i. Counterculture­ represents a smaller culture that is at serious odds with and may even contradict a dominant culture ii. The practice of polygamy among mormons is at serious odds with monogamy in America, for this reason some people say that mormons represent a counter culture B. Cultural Wards a. The text mentions about 15 core American values, some of the things that we mentioned earlier escort values include: i. Achievement and Success ii. Individualism iii. Democracy b. People who believe strongly in these and other core values will resist having those values altered c. Cultural wars refer to clashes in cultural values between groups i. Example: when groups clash over same sex marriage ii. one group values heterosexual relations and opposes same sex relationships iii. another group supports same sex marriage; believing it should be valued as much as heterosexual marriage V. Cultural Leveling and Globalization A. Cultural Leveling a. Globalization has resulted in some customs and technology being adopted worldwide b. For example, McDonald says you can buy the same Big Mac in China that you can buy in America c. This has lead to a leveling of some aspects of culture i. By the word leveling, we mean saneness ii. Different cultures are beginning to look more and more alike d. Some believe level culturing makes the world boring VI. Technology and Culture A. Cultural Lag a. Cultural lag occurs when developments in parts of the society do not keep up with technological innovations b. New technology is introduced in one part of the society but changes in other parts of the society do not occur fast enough to keep up with the new technology c. Example: The US auto industry has started to produce Electric cars, but other parts of our society have not yet developed the services needed to support lots of people driving electric cars. Specifically there are few charging stations where people can drive in and recharge their electric car. One part of society producing new technology but other parts not keeping up with charging stations. March 16, 2016­ W Socialization I. Considering What Makes Us Human a. Some of the things that people argue make us human include i. Language ii. Problem solving ability iii. Human emotions Overall Sociologist argue that society makes us human II. Becoming Culturally and Socially Skillful Human Beings A. Defining Socialization a. Human beings are born without a culture b. Our parents, family, teachers, and others transform us into cultural and socially skillful human beings c. Socialization­ refers to process by which people learn the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behavior thought appropriate for people within their culture d. Through socialization people learn characteristics of their group B. Learning about Socialization from Feral and Institutionalized Children A. Feral Children a. Researchers have learned a lot about socialization and the importance of social interaction for human development from studies of feral children and institutionalized children b. Feral children are kids that have been lost or abandoned in the wild, they have had little if any human contact so they display more animal like traits than human traits c. Monkeys, wolves, and bears are reported to have reared some feral children d. There have been 100 confirmed cases of feral children, Romanian is where feral children have been found most recently e. Feral children are undersocialized B. Institutionalized Children a. Institutionalized Children are kids that have lived in an orphanage or long term care health facilities b. Studies of feral children and institutionalized children suggests a relationship between: i. Social interaction ii. Language acquisition iii. Social interaction and intelligence c. With regards to social interaction and language acquisitions findings from studies of feral children and institutionalized children suggest i. There's a critical period for learning a first language ii. Humans must acquire a first language before age 13 if they are going to speak more than a few words iii. Although we have a biological capacity to learn a language we must interact with others to utilize that capacity iv. Thus heredity and social interaction are involved in language acquisition C. Skeels and Dyke a. With regards to social interaction and intelligence in a study by skeels and dyke in the 1930s suggest that the development of human intelligence depends on kids early social interaction b. In the 1930s researchers divided 25 infants living in an orphanage into two groups c. The first group was removed from the orphanage and cared for severely disabled mental women, these women formed close bonds with the infants d. The Second group of infants were left in the orphanage to receive the usual institutionalized cold and impersonal care e. Two years later the infants in the first group (i.e those taken out and loved by mental disable women) gained an average of 28 points in IQ f. Those in second group (i.e those left in orphanage warehouse) lost 30 points in IQ g. 21 years later about 40% of the kids that have been cared for by the mentally disabled women but loved had completed one or more years of college, the researchers concluded that high intelligence depends partly above close loving relationships with other humans March 18, 2016 ­ F III. Learning How to Think, Reason and Feel A. Ideas from Cooley’s Looking Glass Self a. According to Charles Horton Cooley looking glass self we develop a sense of who we are (ie) self concept from how we think others think about us b. The process occurs like this: i. First we imagine how we appear to others ii. Then we draw conclusions about how others evaluate us

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Textbook: Engineering Mechanics: Statics
Edition: 14
Author: Russell C. Hibbeler
ISBN: 9780133918922

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Locate the centroid y of the shaded area. y x a y xn h h