A solid has the following properties. When illuminated by rays parallel to the z-axis, its shadow is a circular disk. If the rays are parallel to the y-axis, its shadow is a square. If the rays are parallel to the x-axis, its shadow is an isosceles triangle. (In Exercise 12.1.48 you were asked to describe and sketch an example of such a solid, but there are many such solids.) Assume that the projection onto the xz-plane is a square whose sides have length 1. (a) What is the volume of the largest such solid? (b) Is there a smallest volume?
EMB 110 April 7, 2016 Broadcast Technology Electronic Communication Transmitter Receiver radio waves Radio waves can be in the air or it can be contained in a wire The camera takes in waves of light and energy The microphone takes in the audio waves The Receiver end takes the energy and converts it into light and audio waves that play through a TV or radio Transduction Taking one form of energy and converting it into another form of energy Oscillation (waves) Taking a direct current and giving it waves Transmitter/Receiver Transmitter – takes the light and audio energy from a camera and microphone and sends it to the receiver. Receiver – takes the energy from the transmitter and converts it waves for TV and radio Amplification Somewhere along the way the waves get weak so about half way between the transmitter and the receiver is a tower that amplifies the waves so that it can reach the receiver Signal Processing Things can get into the waves that will reshape the energy causing the message to be contorted. These people clear up the waves, making sure unnecessary things don’t mess up the waves Evolution of Electronic Communications 1820 Telegraph (Morse code) This was a direct current of electricity. Stopping and starting the electricity with a box which allowed people to communicate through dots and dashes. 1876 Telephone (Bell) Putting waves into a direct current in order to put a voice to the waves. 1873 Electromagnetic Energy Theory (Maxwell) Pulling the electromagnetic energy to create the waves in a direct current The theory that the waves would be strong enough to leave the cable and go into the air. 1888 (Hertz) scientifically proves theory Created a transmitter to prove Maxwell’s theory 1896 Wireless telegraph (Marconi) Came up with the idea to become wireless 1906 Wireless voice communication (Fessenden) Put a voice to the waves 1906 Audion tube invented (DeForest) An audio tube in the receiver that takes the waves into the tubes which makes the waves clearer and more amplified 1918 Superheterodyne receiver (Armstrong) Armstrong figured out how the tubes DeForest invented worked and he created a knob on a receiver that controlled the Audion tube and amplified the sound ( tuning and volume) Wireless Communications Radio Waves (Electromagnetic waves) connects all of our devices with invisible waves that are everywhere Frequency separates the wireless waves from cables unit of time = 1 second cycles per second determines the different stations The cycles are called Hertz Hertz (Giga = 1 billion Hz; Mega = 1 million Hz; Kilo = 1,000 Hz) The frequency that determines/ separates the different stations Ex: 7 KHz means 7,000 Kilo Hertz o The radio station Kiss107 is 107MHz or 107 million Mega Hertz On test: o 50,000 cycles per second = 50KHz o Write it like “102 = 102 million cycles per second” on the test Wattage (Watts) The ability The more you have the further your signal will go to receiv Wavelength e a Helps you receive the signal The bigger the wave the easier it is to get a signal - The less the frequency the bigger the wave EMB 110 April 14, 2016 Broadcast Technology Wireless Communication (continue) Propagation (sky, ground, direct waves) How the wavelengths leave the transmitter A direct wavelength Repeaters Another tower that will continue the wavelength when it is not strong enough to reach the receiver from the transmitter Translators Amplifies the wave but it changes the frequency Ex : the FM station is 102 but depending on where you live it could be playing on 101.9 Modulation & Bandwidth Bandwidth = capacity (how much info something can hold) Bandwidth per channel (AM 10KHz, FM 200 KHz, DTV 6,000 KHz) Cables: Coaxial (copper) – use to be for canle network shows Fiberoptic – light waves electricity o Uses a laser o High bandwidth Media Economics Basic Terms, Concepts & Issues Gross Revenues Total amount of income you are taking in Determines if you can pay off everything that went into making the production Net Revenues/Profits What’s important The profit you make Macroeconomic Strategies/ Concepts/ Issues Risk Pooling Gambling on movies that will make profit Conglomerates (i.e. Media Conglomerates such as G.E., Disney, News Corp., TimeWarner, Viacom, CBS, Sony, Comcast) Companies with so much money that they have enough to keep losing money on productions that don’t make much profit Deficit Financing Companies know they will lose money but if a show is successful you will pay back the lost money by watching the show Franchising A good chance people will go see a movie even if it sucks The movies would have familiar terms and characters/actors that the audience are willing to pay to see Merchandising (Intellectual Property) If a movie doesn’t have enough money to pay back the production cost, they will be able to make it back in merchandise sales if the movie is big enough.