Using series/parallel resistance combination, find the equivalent resistance seen by the source in the circuit of Fig. 2.98. Find the overall absorbed power by the resistor network.
2/29 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Operant vs Classical conditioning: Operant Conditioning (voluntary - training) response → consequence → response strengthened Classical Conditioning (involuntary) - ***Learning can involve both classical and operant conditioning. Biology and Cognition (when behaviorism doesn’t quite explain everything…) Module 23 Key concepts of behaviorism: - Equipotentiality: the idea that the principles of conditioning should apply to all behaviors and species - Nature Topics: - taste aversion - Instinctual drift - Observational learning - Theory of mind - Overimitation - Emotional Contagion Limits to classical conditioning - Taste aversion - NS of taste can become CS - Other sensory aspects remain NS - Often one-trial learning Not all classical conditioning is alike ***see slides for image Why different effects for different CSs - innate connection between food and nausea - Sounds and nausea are not connected ***Can be conditioned for taste faster than sound Not all operant conditioning is alike either - operant conditioning can train non instinctual behavior - instinctive drift: revert from…**find in book** Pig Instinct (example) - Pigs get rewarded when the put coins into the “pig” - note how their instincts slow the pace - *video Bottom line: - You can train a chicken to play the piano but you can’t stop a pig from rooting - Instinctive drift limits the effects of training Learning by observation - observational learning: watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning their experiences - skills required: mirroring, being able to picture ourselves doing the same thing, and cognition, noticing consequences and associations Observational learning process: Modeling: - the behavior of others serves as a model, an example of how to respond to a situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement Vicarious Conditioning: - Vicarious: experienced indirectly, through others - Vicarious reinforcement and punishment means that our choices are affected as we see others get consequences for their behavior Observational learning: - learn from watching others - Evidence is behavior and language - Consequences can teach you and others - Lesson for parents: what you do your kids will do! - Modeling starts young Preferred Imitations: - feeding a baby doll Why do we model - mirror neurons fire only to reflect the actions or feelings of others. Mirroring the Brain: emotion - pain and empathy (see slides) Mirroring plus vicarious enforcement: Theory of mind - ability to infer another’s mental state - allows for empathy - **understanding what other people need and helping Emotional contagion: - Brain stimulates and vicariously experiences what others experience - being around happy people while sad will make you happy and vice versa Overimitation: - Doing unnecessary tasks when mirroring - Irrelevant action + relevant action = prize - *Video 03/02 (lecture) 9-9:50 am Introduction to Emotion: Module 37 Topics: - Emotion - Theories of Emotional Response - James-Lange Theory - Cannon-Bard - Schacter-Singer Theory (two factor) - Zajonc & Lazarus Theory (two roads) - Experiencing Emotion Theories of Emotion: The Arousal and Cognition “chick and egg” Debates - Which happens first, the body changes that go with an emotion, or the thoughts, or do they happen together James-Lange Theory - body BEFORE thoughts Cannon-Bard Theory - body WITH thoughts Singer-Schacter/Two-Factor Theory - body PLUS thoughts / label Zajonc, LeDoux, Lazarus - body/brain WITHOUT conscious thoughts James-Lange Theory: Body before thought - William James (1842-1910): “We feel afraid because we tremble, sorry because we cry.” - The James Lange theory states that emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli. - Our body arousal happens first, and then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: “I’m angry” - According to this theory, if something makes us smile then we feel happy Cannon-Bard Theory: Simultaneous Body Response and Cognitive Experience - The Cannon-Bard theory asserts that we have a conscious/cognitive experience of emotion at the same time as our body is responding, not afterward. - Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them. Schacter-Singer “two factor” theory: Emotion = Body Response & Cognitive Label - The schacter-singer “two-factor” theory suggests that emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling. - I face a stranger, and my heart is pounding. Is it fear Excitement Anger Lust Or did I have too much caffeine The label completes the emotion. Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, and Richard Lazarus: Emotions without awareness/cognition - Emotional reactions take one of two paths - speedy low road (skips conscious thought) - thinking high road Low road/high road: - The speedy low road: - Fear Stimulus - Fear Response - The thinking high road - Fear stimulus - Sensory Cortex - Prefrontal Cortex - Amygdala - Fear Response Two viewpoints on the two roads: - Lazarus/Schacter-Singer: Appraisal is necessary (appraisal may be automatic). - Zajonc/LeDoux: Appraisal is not necessary for emotional response. - **See slides for diagram How the nervous system responds to emotion: - The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers activity and changes in various organs. - Later, the parasympathetic division calms down the body. Body and Emotions: Stress (sympathetic) - pupils expand - fast and shallow breaths - heart pumps faster - gut inactive Calm (parasympathetic) - pupils shrink - slow, deep breaths - heart slows - gut active Experienced Emotion Two dimensions of emotions - low versus high emotions - positive to negative emotions - **See slides for diagram Closer look at a particular emotion: anger - A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to fight or otherwise take action when necessary - Persistent anger can cause more harm than whatever we’re angry about The Catharsis Myth - The catharsis myth refers to the idea that we can reduce anger by “releasing” it. - In most cases, expressing anger worsens it, and any “release” reinforces the aggression, making it a conditioned habit. - Sometimes releasing anger causes harm, and results in guilt. Instead try calming down and moving on. Sometimes confrontation works: - If directed toward the source - If justifiable - If source is not intimidating Feel-good, Do-good phenomenon: - when in a good mood, we do more for others. The reverse is also true: doing good feels good. Effects of altruism: - “helper's high” - increase of dopamine and endorphins - lowered stress response - enhanced immune system Money and happiness: - positively related - happiness benchmark - **See slides for diagram Adaptation-level phenomenon: - When we step into that sunshine, it seems very bright at first. Then our senses adapt and we develop a “new normal.” If a cloud covers the sun it may seem “dark” in comparison. - The “very bright” sensation is temporarily. - The adaptation-level phenomenon: when our wealth or other life conditions improve, we are happier compared to our past condition. - However, then we adapt, form a “new normal” level, and most people must get another boost to feel the same satisfaction. Adapting Attitudes Instead of Circumstances: - Because of the adaptation-level phenomenon, our level of contentment does not permanently stay higher when we gain income and wealth; we keep adjusting our expectations. - Lottery winners and accident victims who become paraplegics. - In both cases humans tend to adapt. Correlates of Happiness: researchers have found that happy people tend to: - have high self-esteem (in individual countries) - Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable - Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage - Have work and leisure that engage their skills - Have an active religious faith - Sleep well and exercise However, happiness seems not much related to other factors, such as: - Age - Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more joyful) - Parenthood (having children or not) - Physical attractiveness Possible ways to increase your chances at happiness: - look beyond wealth for satisfaction - bring your habits in line with your goals; take control of your time - smile and act happy - find work and leisure that engage your skills - exercise, or just move - focus on the needs and wishes of others - work, rest, and SLEEP - notice what goes well and express gratitude - nurture spirituality, meaning, and community - make your close relationships a priority. 03/03 (lab) 9-9:50 am Expressed Emotion Module 39 Detecting Emotion: - Humans are typically very good - Very quickly - Can be misperceived - Women are typically better than men at this - Similar across cultures (universal) Lie Detection (Module 38) Lie Detection: - Can people detect lies - Can we use physiological measures to detect lies Polygraph Tests: - Measures physiological changes thought to indicate arousal - Arousal related to lying - i.e., pal sweating, blood pressure, & respiration Typically 4 sensors - Attached to body, tubes placed around chest & stomach, & blood pressure cuff on arm Does it work Yes! Accuracy is 65% or better for polygraph Average for people (no polygraph) is 57% False positives = 37% - A test that indicates that a particular condition or attribute is present False negatives = 24% - A test that indicates that a particular condition or attribute is absent Guilty Knowledge Test: - Subjects respond to a series of multiple choice questions - Example: The victim’s body was found in the: - A. Kitchen - B. Bedroom - C. Bathroom Goal is different from polygraph tests Best for showing that an innocent individual did NOT commit the crime Tends to be a problem with the guilty Not used very much in investigations Is it possible to detect a lie Assumptions about lying: Innocent suspects - Give concise answers, sit upright, face the interrogator Guilty suspects - Avoid eye contact, overly polite - NOT BASED ON EMPIRICAL FINDINGS! According to research… Innocent suspects - Cooperative, provide long answers, & even show anger Guilty suspects - Increased voice pitch, nervousness, hesitation, uncertainty, pupil dilation (DePaulo & colleagues, 2003) Are professionals better lie detectors Experienced federal law enforcement: 52% Inexperience federal law enforcement: 53% Secret Service: 64% Federal Polygraphers: 56% Police officers, detectives: 45-57%